社区团队已经为 Tor 的有关术语整理了词汇表

A

组件,扩展,或插件

组件,扩展,和插件是可以被添加到网络浏览器的组件以使它们有新的功能。 Tor 浏览器上安装了两个组件: NoScriptHTTPS Everywhere. 你不应该安装额外新的插件到 Tor 浏览器,因为这些插件会影响一些隐私保护功能。

杀毒软件

杀毒软件用于防止,检测和删除恶意软件。 杀毒软件可能会干扰计算机上运行的 Tor。 如果您不知道如何允许 Tor,就可能需要查阅杀毒软件的文档。

App

Web 应用(web app)是客户端运行在网络浏览器上的应用 App 也能表示你在移动端操作系统上安装的软件。

Atlas

Atlas 是一个了解当前运行中的 Tor 中继的 Web 应用。

B

带宽验证

为了确定中继的吞吐量,称为带宽管理器的特殊继电器在共识中周期性测量中继

网桥

Like ordinary Tor relays, bridges are run by volunteers; unlike ordinary relays, however, they are not listed publicly, so an adversary cannot identify them easily. 可插拔传输 是网桥的一种,用于伪装您使用Tor的事实。

权威网桥

一种专用中继,用于维护网桥列表。

浏览器指纹

指纹是收集设备或服务的信息来对其身份或特征进行有根据的猜测的方法。 独立的行为或响应可以被用于辨认设备和分析服务。 Tor 浏览器阻止指纹追踪。

浏览历史

浏览器历史记录是使用 Web 浏览器时发出的请求的记录,包括访问过的网站和访问时间等信息。 Tor 浏览器会在您关闭会话后删除您的浏览历史记录。

C

验证码

验证码是一种用于计算的挑战-响应测试,用于确定用户是否是人类。 Tor 用户经常被提供验证码,因为 Tor 中继发出的请求太多,有时网站很难确定这些请求是来自人类还是来自机器人。

校验和

Checksums are hashvalues of files. If you have downloaded the software without errors, the given checksum and the checksum of your downloaded file will be identical.

链路

客户端构建的 Tor 网络链路,由随机选择的节点组成。链路以网桥守卫节点开始。大多数链路由三个节点组成——一个守卫节点或网桥,一个中间中继和一个出口。大多数洋葱服务在一个链路中使用6跳(除了 single onion services),并且没有出口节点。您可以在 Tor 浏览器中点击洋葱按钮查看您当前 Tor 链路。

客户

Tor 中,客户端是Tor网络中的一个节点,通常代表一个用户运行,它通过一系列中继路由应用程序连接。

Compass

Compass 是一个可用于了解当前批量运行的Tor中继的 Web 应用程序。

共识

在 Tor 中,单个文档会在每小时被目录管理器编译和投票一次,以保证每个客户端都有构成 Tor 网络中继的相同信息。

cookie

HTTP cookie(也称为 web cookie、Internet cookie、浏览器 cookie 或简称 cookie)是用户在浏览网页时,由用户的 Web 浏览器发送到用户的计算机上并存储在计算机上的一小段数据。Tor 浏览器不存储 cookie。

跨站脚本(XSS)

跨站脚本(XSS)允许攻击者在不应有向网站添加恶意功能或行为的能力时向网站添加这些功能或行为。

密码学签名

A cryptographic signature proves the authenticity of a message or file. It is created by the holder of the private portion of a public key cryptography key pair and can be verified by the corresponding public key. If you download software from torproject.org, you will find it as signature files (.asc). These are PGP signatures, so you can verify that the file you have downloaded is exactly the one that we intended you to get. For more information about how you can verify signatures, please see here.

D

后台进程

后台进程是相对于在用户的直接控制之下,作为背景运行的计算机程序。

目录管理器

一个有特殊用途的中继,它维护当前运行的中继的列表,并定期与其他目录管理器一起发布一个共识

E

加密

将一段数据打乱成只能被目标接收者读取的密码的过程。Tor 在 Tor 链路中使用三层加密;每个中继在将请求传递到下一个中继之前解密一个层。

端到端加密

从起始到终点加密传输数据叫做端到端加密。

退出

The last relay in the Tor circuit which sends traffic out onto the public Internet. The service you are connecting to (website, chat service, email provider, etc..) will see the IP address of the exit.

ExoneraTor

The ExoneraTor service maintains a database of relay IP addresses that have been part of the Tor network. It answers the question whether there was a Tor relay running on a given IP address on a given date. This service is often useful when dealing with law enforcement.

F

Firefox

Mozilla Firefox 是一个由 Mozilla 基金会及其子公司 Mozilla 公司开发的免费且开源的 浏览器Tor 浏览器 是基于 Firefox ESR(扩展支持版本)的修改版本构建的。 Firefox is available for Windows, macOS and Linux operating systems, with its mobile version (fennec) available for Android.

防火墙

防火墙是一个监视和控制传入和传出的网络流量的网络安全系统。这个流量过滤器基于预定的规则。防火墙通常在可信,安全的内部网络和另一个外部网络之间建立屏障,但从审查的意义上来说,它也可以用作内容过滤器。有时人们连接 Tor 出现问题是因为他们的防火墙阻止了 Tor 的连接。您可以重新配置或禁用您的防火墙,然后重新启动 Tor 试试。

Flash 播放器

Flash Player 是一个浏览器插件,用于为互联网应用程序观看音频和视频内容。因为它并不安全,您不应该在 Tor 浏览器 中启用 Flash。很多使用 Flash 的服务也提供 HTML5 替代方案,应该可以在 Tor 浏览器中使用。

fte

FTE (format-transforming encryption) is a pluggable transport that disguises Tor traffic as ordinary web (HTTP) traffic.

G

GetTor

It is a service that automatically responds to messages (Email, XMPP, Twitter) with links to the latest version of Tor Browser, hosted at a variety of locations, such as Dropbox, Google Drive and GitHub.

GSoC

The Tor Project participates in the Google Summer of Code, which is a summer program for university students.

guard

The first relay in the Tor circuit, unless using a bridge. When using a bridge, the bridge takes the place of the guard.

H

hash

A cryptographic hash value is the result of a mathematical algorithm that maps data to a bit string of a fixed size. It's designed as one-way-function which means the value is easy to calculate in one direction but infeasible to invert. Hash values serve to verify the integrity of data.

隐身服务

"onion services"的曾用名,有时仍在 Tor里被使用。

In Tor terms, a "hop" refers to traffic moving between relays in a circuit.

HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a channel used to send files and data between devices on a network. Originally used to transfer only web pages, it is now relied upon to deliver many forms of data and communication.

HTTPS

安全超文本传输协议 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, HTTPS) 是用于在网络中的设备之间传输文件和数据的 HTTP 通道的加密版本。

HTTPS Everywhere

HTTPS Everywhere是一个Firefox,Chrome和Opera的拓展 ,它将默认通过HTTPS访问那些搭建了HTTPS服务但没有将其设置为默认的网站。 HTTPS Everywhere 已经内置于 Tor 浏览器 中。

I

网络服务提供商(ISP)

一个互联网服务提供商(ISP)是一个提供接入与使用互联网服务的组织。当使用Tor 浏览器时,你的ISP无法看见你正在访问什么网站。

IP 地址

互联网协议地址(IP地址)是一个数字标签(在IPv6的情况下是字母-数字组合标签),分配给每一个连接到计算机网络并通过网络协议通讯的设备(例如:电脑,打印机)。 IP地址是设备的网络位置的地址,就像是一个物理位置的地址一样。 Tor Browser obscures your location by making it look like your traffic is coming from an IP address that is not your own.

J

JavaScript

JavaScript is a programming language that websites use to offer interactive elements such as video, animation, audio, and status timelines. Unfortunately, JavaScript can also enable attacks on the security of the web browser, which might lead to deanonymization. The NoScript extension in Tor Browser can be used to manage JavaScript on different websites.

K

L

little-t tor

"little-t tor" is one way of referring to tor the network daemon, as opposed to Tor Browser or Tor Project.

M

meek

These pluggable transports all make it look like you are browsing a major web site instead of using Tor. Meek-amazon makes it look like you are using Amazon Web Services; meek-azure makes it look like you are using a Microsoft web site; and meek-google makes it look like you are using Google search.

middle relay

The middle position in the Tor circuit. Non-exit relays can function as either a "middle" or a "guard" for different users.

N

新身份

New Identity is a Tor Browser feature if you want to prevent your subsequent browser activity from being linkable to what you were doing before. 选择该选项将关闭所有已经打开的浏览器标签页与窗口,清除所有个人信息,例如cookiesbrowsing history,并且对于所有连接使用新的Tor circuits。 Tor 浏览器会警告你所有活动与下载将被停止,所以在点击“新身份”前请考虑这一点。 新的身份也可以帮助判断Tor 浏览器是否会在连接一个特定网站时出现问题,类似于"New Tor Circuit for this Site"。

为此站点使用新 Tor 线路

This option is useful if the exit you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Selecting it will cause the currently active tab or window to be reloaded over a new Tor circuit. Other open tabs and windows from the same website will use the new circuit as well once they are reloaded. This option does not clear any private information or unlink your activity, nor does it affect your current connections to other websites.

网络审查

有时直接进入 Tor 网络 的访问会被您的 互联网服务提供商(ISP) 或者政府所组织。Tor 浏览器包含了一些规避工具来绕过这些阻碍,包括网桥, 可插拔传输, and GetTor

NoScript

Tor 浏览器 包含一个叫 NoScript 的扩展,可通过窗口左上角的 “S” 图标访问。允许你控制运行于单个网页中的 JavaScript,或者完全阻止运行 JavaScript。

nyx

The anonymizing relay monitor (formerly arm, now nyx) is a terminal status monitor for Tor, intended for command-line usage. This is a tool for monitoring the core Tor process on a system, often useful for relay operators.

O

obfs3

Obfs3是一种能够让 Tor通信看上去像是随机噪声的可插拔式传输方式。因此它并不像Tor或者其他协议,Obfs3网桥会在大多数地区工作。

obfs4

Obfs4 is a pluggable transport that makes Tor traffic look random like obfs3, and also prevents censors from finding bridges by Internet scanning. Obfs4 bridges are less likely to be blocked than obfs3 bridges.

Onion地址

A standardized internet domain name used by onion services that ends in .onion and is designed to be self-authenticating.

OONI

OONI 表示“Open Observatory of Network Interference网络干预开放观测台”,这是一个全球性为了侦测审查,监视和流量操控的观测网络。

Onion Browser

一个开源、使用 Tor 路由、并由工作和Tor项目密切相关的一些人开发的 iOS 应用。 了解更多关于 Onion Browser

洋葱服务

洋葱服务(以前称为“隐藏服务”)是只能通过 Tor 网络 访问的(类似于网站的)服务。 洋葱网提供的服务比非私有网络上的普通服务更有优势,包括:

Onionoo

Onionoo is a web-based protocol to learn about currently running Tor relays and bridges. Onionoo provides the data for other applications and websites(compass, atlas, etc..) which in turn present Tor network status information to humans.

洋葱站点

洋葱站点是洋葱服务的另一个名字,但是只用于称呼网站。 这些网站使用 .onion 顶级域名(TLD)。

onionspace

一组可用的洋葱服务。例如,你可以说“我的网站在onionspace上”而不是“我的网站在暗网上”。

操作系统(OS)

The main system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The most used desktop operating systems are Windows, macOS and Linux. Android and iOS are the dominant mobile operating systems.

Orbot

Orbot 是来自 Guardian 项目的免费 app,它可以让你的设备上的其他应用更安全地使用互联网。Orbot 使用 Tor加密您的互联网流量,并通过在世界各地的一系列计算机中跳跃来隐藏它。

Orfox

Orfox is free app from The Guardian Project built from the same source code as Tor Browser which is built upon Firefox, but with a few minor modifications to the privacy enhancing features to make them compatible with Firefox for Android and the Android operating system.

P

可插拔传输

Tools that Tor can use to disguise the traffic it sends out. This can be useful in situations where an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or other authority is actively blocking connections to the Tor network.

私钥

The private portion of a public/private key pair. This is the key that must be kept private, and not disseminated to others.

代理

代理是介于客户端(例如浏览器)和服务端(例如网页服务器)之间的中间人。 Instead of connecting directly to the service, a client sends the message to the proxy. The proxy makes the request on behalf of the client, and passes the response back to the client. The service only communicates with and sees the proxy.

公钥

The public portion of a public/private key pair. 这是一个可以被传递给他人的密钥。

公开密钥加密算法

公钥加密系统使用成对的数学密钥。 公钥public key会被广泛地传递,而它所属的私钥private key仅被这对密钥的所属者所知晓。 任何人都可以使用接收者的公钥加密信息,但只有拥有私钥的接收者才能解密信息。 Additionally, the private key can be used to create a signature to proof the identity of the creator of a message or other files. 可以通过公钥验证此签名。

Q

R

中继

A publicly-listed node in the Tor network that forwards traffic on behalf of clients, and that registers itself with the directory authorities.

S

Satori

It is an add-on for the Chrome or Chromium browsers that allows you to download several security and privacy programs, including Tor Browser, from different sources. You can Install Satori from the Chrome Web Store.

scramblesuit

Scramblesuit与obfs4很相似,但是有一套不同的网桥

脚本

被网站用于提供动态/交互式内容的元素。

自认证地址

The specialized address format of onion addresses is self-authenticating. The format automatically guarantees that the onion address is bound to the key used to protect connections to the onionsite. Ordinary internet domain names require site owners to trust and be approved by a Certificate Authority (CA) for this binding, and they are subject to hijack by the CA and typically by many other parties as well.

服务器

一个在网络的中设备用于提供服务,例如文件与网页的存储,邮件或聊天。

session

A session refers to a conversation between two devices communicating on a network. Using Tor Browser means that your session data will be wiped when you close the web browser.

single onion service

A single onion service is an onion service that can be configured for services that do not require anonymity, but want to offer it for clients connecting to their service. Single onion services use only three hops in the circuit rather than the typical six hops for onion services.

Stem

Stem is a Python (programming language) controller library for core Tor. If you want to control core Tor with python, this is for you.

Sybil attack

The Sybil attack in computer security is an attack wherein a reputation system is subverted by creating a large number of identities, and using them to gain a disproportionately large influence in the network.

T

Tails

Tails is a "live" operating system, that you can start on almost any computer from a DVD, USB stick, or SD card. It aims to preserve your privacy and anonymity. Learn more about Tails.

The Tor Project

The Tor Project can refer to either The Tor Project Inc, a 501(c)3 US nonprofit responsible for maintaining the Tor software, or the Tor Project community made up of thousands of volunteers from all over the world who help create Tor.

第三方跟踪

Most websites use numerous third-party services, including advertising and analytics trackers, which collect data about your IP address, web browser, system and your browsing behavior itself, all of which can link your activity across different sites. Tor Browser prevents a lot of this activity from happening.

Tor / Tor 网络/ Tor 核心

Tor is a program you can run on your computer that helps keep you safe on the Internet. It protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location. This set of volunteer relays is called the Tor network. Sometimes the software associated with this network is called Core Tor, and sometimes "little-t tor". The way most people use Tor is with Tor Browser which is a version of Firefox that fixes many privacy issues.

Tor 浏览器

Tor Browser uses the Tor network to protect your privacy and anonymity. Your internet activity, including the names and addresses of the websites you visit, will be hidden from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) and from anyone watching your connection locally. The operators of the websites and services that you use, and anyone watching them, will see a connection coming from the Tor network instead of your real Internet (IP) address, and will not know who you are unless you explicitly identify yourself. In addition, Tor Browser is designed to prevent websites from “fingerprinting” or identifying you based on your browser configuration. Tor 浏览器默认不保留任何浏览记录Cookies are only valid for a single session (until Tor Browser is exited or a New Identity is requested).

Tor 启动器

当您第一次运行 Tor 浏览器 时, 您会看到 Tor 启动器的界面。 It offers you the option to connect directly to the Tor network, or to configure Tor Browser for your connection. 第二种情况下,Tor 启动器将引导您进行一系列相关配置。

Tor 日志

"Tor log" is an automatically-generated list of Tor’s activity that can help diagnose problems. When something goes wrong with Tor, you may see an option with the error message to "copy Tor log to clipboard". If you don't see this option and you have Tor Browser open, you can navigate to the Torbutton (on the top left of the browser, to the left of the URL bar). Click the Tor button, then open Tor Network Settings. You should see an option at the bottom to copy the log to your clipboard, which you can then paste to a document to show whoever is helping you troubleshoot.

Tor Messenger

Tor Messenger was a cross-platform chat program that aimed to be secure by default and send all of its traffic over Tor. Tor Messenger 已经不再继续开发。 It supported Jabber (XMPP), IRC, Google Talk, Facebook Chat, Twitter, Yahoo, and others; enabled Off-the-Record (OTR) Messaging automatically; and had an easy-to-use graphical user interface localized into multiple languages.

TorBirdy

This extension configures Thunderbird to make connections over Tor.

Torbutton

一个在地址栏左侧的绿色洋葱标志按钮。 Its menu offers you "New Identity", "Security Settings..." and "Check for Tor Browser Update..." options.

torrc

Tor的核心配置文件。

Torsocks

Torsocks能够让你通过Tor以一种更安全的方式来使用很多应用。 It ensures that DNS requests are handled safely and explicitly rejects any traffic other than TCP from the application you're using.

Tor2Web

Tor2web 是一个让用户不使用 Tor 浏览器 访问洋葱服务的项目。 NOTE: This is not as safe as connecting to the onion services via Tor Browser, and will remove all Tor-related protections the client would otherwise have.

TPI

TPI是The Tor Project, Inc的首字母缩写。

tpo

People on IRC often use tpo to abbreviate torproject.org when writing hostnames. For example, trac.tpo is an abbreviation for trac.torproject.org.

流量

流量是被客户端服务器发送和接收的数据。

U

V

W

Web 浏览器

Web 浏览器(通常称为浏览器)是用于在万维网上检索,呈现和遍历信息资源的软件应用程序。 主流 Web 浏览器包括 Firefox、Chrome、Internet Explorer 和 Safari。

网站镜像

网站镜像是网站的完整副本,您可以在其他网址下找到该副本。 最近可用的 torproject.org 镜像列表可以在 https://www.torproject.org/getinvolved/mirrors.html.en 中找到。

X

Y

Z