Ceisteanna Is Coitianta

Ní bheidh. Beidh eagraíochtaí áirithe, mar shampla do Sholáthraí Seirbhíse Idirlín (ISP), in ann a fheiceáil go bhfuil tú ag baint úsáide as Tor, ach ní bheidh siad in ann na suímh a dtugann tú cuairt orthu a fheiceáil.

Is féidir. Chabhródh Brabhsálaí Tor le daoine do shuíomh Gréasáin a bhaint amach aon áit ina bhfuil cosc air. Most of the time, simply downloading the Tor Browser and then using it to navigate to the blocked site will allow access. In places where there is heavy censorship we have a number of censorship circumvention options available, including pluggable transports.

For more information, please see the Tor Browser User Manual section on censorship.

Molaimid go láidir duit gan breiseáin nua a shuiteáil i mBrabhsálaí Tor, ar eagla go gcuirfidís do phríobháideachas agus do shlándáil i gcontúirt. Tagann dhá bhreiseán mar chuid de Bhrabhsálaí Tor cheana — HTTPS Everywhere agus NoScript — agus dá gcuirfeá breiseáin eile leis, bheifeá i gcontúirt d'aitheantas a nochtadh.

Tor Browser is currently available on Windows, Linux and macOS.

Ar Android, cuireann Tionscadal Guardian aipeanna a bhfuil Tor taobh thiar díobh ar fáil, Orbot agus Orfox.

There is no official version of Tor for iOS yet, though we recommend Onion Browser.

Is féidir, ach ní mholaimid VPN a úsáid le Tor murar úsáideoir ardleibhéil thú agus mura bhfuil saineolas agat ar conas is féidir Tor agus an VPN a chumrú sa chaoi nach gcuirfidís do phríobháideachas i gcontúirt.

Is féidir teacht ar thuilleadh eolais maidir le Tor agus VPN ar ár vicí.

Brabhsálaí Tor

Digital signature is a process ensuring that a certain package was generated by its developers and has not been tampered with. Below we explain why it is important and how to verify that the Tor program you download is the one we have created and has not been modified by some attacker.

Each file on our download page is accompanied by a file with the same name as the package and the extension ".asc". These .asc files are GPG signatures. They allow you to verify the file you've downloaded is exactly the one that we intended you to get. For example, torbrowser-install-8.0.8_en-US.exe is accompanied by torbrowser-install-8.0.8_en-US.exe.asc. For a list of which developer signs which package, see our signing keys page.

We now show how you can verify the downloaded file's digital signature on different operating systems. Please notice that a signature is dated the moment the package has been signed. Therefore every time a new file is uploaded a new signature is generated with a different date. As long as you have verified the signature you should not worry that the reported date may vary.

Windows

First of all you need to have GnuPG installed before you can verify signatures. Download it from https://gpg4win.org/download.html.

Once it's installed, use GnuPG to import the key that signed your package. In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in windows command-line, cmd.exe.

The Tor Browser team signs Tor Browser releases. Import its key (0x4E2C6E8793298290) by starting cmd.exe and typing:

gpg.exe --keyserver pool.sks-keyservers.net --recv-keys 0x4E2C6E8793298290

After importing the key, you can verify that the fingerprint is correct:

gpg.exe --fingerprint 0x4E2C6E8793298290

You should see:

pub   rsa4096/0x4E2C6E8793298290 2014-12-15 [C] [expires: 2020-08-24]
      Key fingerprint = EF6E 286D DA85 EA2A 4BA7  DE68 4E2C 6E87 9329 8290
uid                   [ unknown] Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser&at;torproject.org>
sub   rsa4096/0xEB774491D9FF06E2 2018-05-26 [S] [expires: 2020-09-12]
      Key fingerprint = 1107 75B5 D101 FB36 BC6C  911B EB77 4491 D9FF 06E2

To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the ".asc" file as well. Assuming you downloaded the package and its signature to your Desktop, run:

gpg.exe --verify C:\\Users\\Alice\\Desktop\\torbrowser-install-win64-8.0.8_en-US.exe.asc C:\\Users\\Alice\\Desktop\\torbrowser-install-8.0.8_en-US.exe

Please substitute "Alice" with your own username.

The output should say "Good signature":

gpg: Signature made Tue 12 Feb 2019 08:27:41 AM EST
gpg:                using RSA key EB774491D9FF06E2
gpg: Good signature from "Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser@torproject.org>" [unknown]
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: EF6E 286D DA85 EA2A 4BA7  DE68 4E2C 6E87 9329 8290
     Subkey fingerprint: 1107 75B5 D101 FB36 BC6C  911B EB77 4491 D9FF 06E2

Currently valid subkey fingerprints are:

1107 75B5 D101 FB36 BC6C  911B EB77 4491 D9FF 06E2

Notice that there is a warning because you haven't assigned a trust index to this person. This means that GnuPG verified that the key made that signature, but it's up to you to decide if that key really belongs to the developer. The best method is to meet the developer in person and exchange key fingerprints.

macOS and Linux

You need to have GnuPG installed before you can verify signatures. If you are using macOS, you can install it from https://www.gpgtools.org/. If you are using Linux, then you probably already have GnuPG in your system, as most Linux distributions come with it preinstalled.

The next step is to use GnuPG to import the key that signed your package. The Tor Browser team signs Tor Browser releases. Import its key (0x4E2C6E8793298290) by starting the terminal (under "Applications" in macOS) and typing:

gpg --keyserver pool.sks-keyservers.net --recv-keys 0x4E2C6E8793298290

After importing the key, you can verify that the fingerprint is correct:

gpg --fingerprint 0x4E2C6E8793298290

You should see:

pub   rsa4096/0x4E2C6E8793298290 2014-12-15 [C] [expires: 2020-08-24]
      Key fingerprint = EF6E 286D DA85 EA2A 4BA7  DE68 4E2C 6E87 9329 8290
uid                   [ unknown] Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser&at;torproject.org>
sub   rsa4096/0xEB774491D9FF06E2 2018-05-26 [S] [expires: 2020-09-12]
      Key fingerprint = 1107 75B5 D101 FB36 BC6C  911B EB77 4491 D9FF 06E2

To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the ".asc" file as well. Assuming you downloaded the package and its signature to your Downloads folder, run:

For macOS users:

gpg --verify ~/Downloads/TorBrowser-8.0.8-osx64_en-US.dmg{.asc,}

For Linux users (change 64 to 32 if you have the 32-bit package):

gpg --verify tor-browser-linux64-8.0.8_en-US.tar.xz{.asc,}

The output should say "Good signature":

gpg: Signature made Wed 15 Nov 2017 05:52:38 PM CET
gpg:                using RSA key 0xD1483FA6C3C07136
gpg: Good signature from "Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser&at;torproject.org>" [unknown]
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: EF6E 286D DA85 EA2A 4BA7  DE68 4E2C 6E87 9329 8290
     Subkey fingerprint: A430 0A6B C93C 0877 A445  1486 D148 3FA6 C3C0 7136

Currently valid subkey fingerprints are:

1107 75B5 D101 FB36 BC6C  911B EB77 4491 D9FF 06E2

Notice that there is a warning because you haven't assigned a trust index to this person. This means that GnuPG verified that the key made that signature, but it's up to you to decide if that key really belongs to the developer. The best method is to meet the developer in person and exchange key fingerprints.

See https://www.gnupg.org/documentation/ to learn more about GnuPG.

Aon uair a fhoilsímid leagan nua cobhsaí de Bhrabhsálaí Tor, scríobhaimid postáil ar ár mblag a dhéanann cur síos ar na gnéithe nua atá ann, agus ar aon fhadhbanna ar ár n-eolas. If you started having issues with your Tor Browser after an update, check out blog.torproject.org for a post on the most recent stable Tor Browser to see if your issue is listed. Mura bhfeiceann tú d'fhadhb ann, déan tuairisc uirthi.

Go minic is féidir próisis áirithe a chur ar "liosta bán" sa chaoi nach gcuirfidh an bogearra frithvíris cosc orthu. Ba chóir duit an bogearra frithvíris a oscailt agus "liosta bán" nó a leithéid a lorg sna socruithe. Ansin, cuir na próisis seo a leanas ar an liosta bán:

  • Ar Windows
    • firefox.exe
    • tor.exe
    • obfs4proxy.exe (má úsáideann tú droichid)
  • For macOS
    • TorBrowser
    • tor.real
    • obfs4proxy (má úsáideann tú droichid)

Ansin, atosaigh Brabhsálaí Tor. Is dócha go réiteoidh seo an fhadhb. Tabhair faoi deara go gcuireann bogearraí frithvíris áirithe, mar shampla Kaspersky, cosc ar Tor ag leibhéal an bhalla dóiteáin.

Iarradh an spriocfhillteán ort nuair a d'íoslódáil agus a rith tú an comhad. Má rinne tú dearmad den fhillteán a roghnaigh tú, is é is dóichí gurb é an fillteán Downloads nó Desktop.

The default setting in the Windows installer also creates a shortcut for you on your Desktop, though be aware that you may have accidentally deselected the option to create a shortcut.

Mura bhfeiceann tú i gceachtar de na fillteáin sin é, íoslódáil arís agus coinnigh súil amach don cheist a iarrann ort an fillteán íoslódála a roghnú. Roghnaigh fillteán nach ndéanfaidh tú dearmad air, agus chomh luath agus a bheidh an íoslódáil críochnaithe, feicfidh tú Brabhsálaí Tor ann.

Tá Flash díchumasaithe i mBrabhsálaí Tor, agus molaimid duit gan é a chumasú. Creidimid go bhfuil sé contúirteach Flash a úsáid i mbrabhsálaí ar bith — is bogearra an-neamhshlán é a chuireann do phríobháideachas agus do ríomhaire i gcontúirt. Ar an dea-uair, tá suímh Ghréasáin, gléasanna, agus brabhsálaithe eile ag tabhairt droim láimhe do Flash.

Trácht de chuid bhrabhsálaí Tor amháin a sheoltar thar líonra Tor. Ní bheidh feidhmchláir eile ar do chóras (brabhsálaithe eile san áireamh) ceangailte le líonra Tor, agus ní bheidh siad cosanta dá bharr sin. Caithfidh tú cumrú speisialta a dhéanamh chun Tor a úsáid leo. Má tá tú ag iarraidh deimhniú go rachaidh an trácht go léir ó do ríomhaire thar líonra Tor, caith súil ar an gcóras oibriúcháin Tails live, córas is féidir a chur i bhfeidhm ar bheagnach aon ríomhaire ó chipín USB nó ó DVD.

Molaimid go láidir duit gan breiseáin nua a shuiteáil i mBrabhsálaí Tor, ar eagla go gcuirfidís do phríobháideachas agus do shlándáil i gcontúirt. Tagann dhá bhreiseán mar chuid de Bhrabhsálaí Tor cheana — HTTPS Everywhere agus NoScript — agus dá gcuirfeá breiseáin eile leis, bheifeá i gcontúirt d'aitheantas a nochtadh.

Ní féidir, faraor. Níl aon leagan de Bhrabhsálaí Tor ar Chrome OS faoi láthair.

Molaimid go láidir duit gan athrú a dhéanamh ar an gcaoi a gcruthaíonn Tor a chuid ciorcad. Gheobhaidh tú an tslándáil is fearr nuair a fhágann tú roghnú an ródúcháin faoi Tor. Níl sé sábháilte na hathsheachadáin isteach / amach a roghnaíonn Tor a athrú.
Mura bhfuil tú ach ag iarraidh teacht ar acmhainní nach bhfuil ar fáil ach i dtír amháin, b'fhéidir go mbeadh sé níos fearr VPN a úsáid in áit Tor. Réitíonn VPNanna roinnt fadhbanna a bhaineann le geoshuíomh, ach ní bhfaighidh tú na gnéithe céanna príobháideachais a fhaigheann tú ó Tor.

Má úsáideann tú Brabhsálaí Tor agus brabhsálaí eile san am gcéanna, níl aon éifeacht ar fheidhmíocht Tor nó ar a ghnéithe príobháideachais. Mar sin féin, ba chóir duit a bheith ar an eolas nach mbeidh na gnéithe príobháideachais céanna ar fáil sa mbrabhsálaí eile. Mar sin, caithfidh tú a bheith cúramach gan an brabhsálaí eile a úsáid chun rud éigin a dhéanamh a bhí tú ag iarraidh a dhéanamh i mBrabhsálaí Tor.

Ní thacaíonn, go hoifigiúil. Tá tionscadal darb ainm TorBSD ann, ach ní thacóimid leis an leagan de Bhrabhsálaí Tor atá acu.

B'fhéidir é. Má tá, ba chóir duit triail a bhaint as droichead. Tá roinnt droichead ionsuite i mBrabhsálaí Tor, agus is féidir leat iad siúd a úsáid trí "Cumraigh" a roghnú (agus na treoracha a leanúint) sa bhfuinneog Tor Launcher a osclaíonn an chéad uair a úsáideann tú Brabhsálaí Tor. If you need other bridges, you can get them at our Bridges website. For more information about bridges, see the Tor Browser manual.

Sin gnáthiompar Tor. Tugtar "garda" nó "garda iontrála" ar an chéad athsheachadán i do chiorcad. Is éard atá sa ngarda ná athsheachadán sciobtha agus cobhsaí a fhanann mar an chéad cheann i do chiorcad ar feadh 2-3 mhí, mar chosaint ar ionsaí aitheanta a dhéanann iarracht do chuid faisnéise pearsanta a nochtadh. Athraíonn an chuid eile den chiorcad aon uair a dtugann tú cuairt ar shuíomh nua. Oibríonn na hathsheachadáin seo as lámh a chéile chun do phríobháideachas a chosaint. Le tuilleadh eolais maidir le gardaí iontrála a fháil, féach ar an bpostáil bhlag seo agus an páipéar seo.

Is minic go mbíonn fadhb le clog an chórais ina cúis le hearráidí i mBrabhsálaí Tor. Ba chóir duit deimhniú go bhfuil clog an chórais agus an crios ama socraithe mar is ceart. If this doesn't fix the problem, see the Troubleshooting page on the Tor Browser manual.

Cliceáil an cnaipe "Cóipeáil Logchomhad Tor go dtí an Ghearrthaisce" a fheicfidh tú san fhuinneog nuair a cheanglaíonn Brabhsálaí Tor leis an líonra i dtosach báire. Má tá Brabhsálaí Tor oscailte cheana féin, cliceáil an cnaipe Tor (an t-oinniún beag glas ag barr an scáileáin ar chlé), ansin "Socruithe Líonra Tor", ansin "Cóipeáil Logchomhad Tor go dtí an Ghearrthaisce". Chomh luath agus a bheidh an logchomhad cóipeáilte agat, beidh tú in ann é a ghreamú isteach in eagarthóir téacs nó i gcliant rphoist.

Uaireanta bíonn Brabhsálaí Tor níos moille ná brabhsálaithe eile. Tá thart ar mhilliún duine ag baint úsáide as líonra Tor gach uile lá, gan ach 6000 athsheachadán leis an trácht go léir a láimhseáil. Tagann moill ar an líonra mar gheall ar an lód mór ar gach freastalaí. Is féidir leat luas an líonra a fheabhsú trí athsheachadán de do chuid féin a rith, nó daoine eile a spreagadh chun é seo a dhéanamh. É sin ráite, tá Tor i bhfad níos sciobtha ná a bhíodh sé, agus seans nach dtabharfaidh tú aon mhoill faoi deara.

Is é DuckDuckGo an t-inneall cuardaigh réamhshocraithe i mBrabhsálaí Tor. Ní lorgaíonn DuckDuckGo a chuid úsáideoirí agus ní shábhálann sé aon sonraí maidir leis na cuardaigh a dhéanann siad. Tá tuilleadh eolais ar fáil i bpolasaí príobháideachais DuckDuckGo.

Féach an suíomh tacaíochta DuckDuckGo. Má chreideann tú go mbaineann an fhadhb le Brabhsálaí Tor, is féidir leat tuairisc a dhéanamh ar ár rianaire fabhtanna.

Féach na Ceisteanna Coitianta NoScript. Má chreideann tú go mbaineann an fhadhb le Brabhsálaí Tor, is féidir leat tuairisc a dhéanamh ar ár rianaire fabhtanna.

Féach na ceisteanna coitianta ar shuíomh HTTPS Everywhere. Má chreideann tú go mbaineann an fhadhb le Brabhsálaí Tor, is féidir leat tuairisc a dhéanamh ar ár rianaire fabhtanna.

Is féidir leat Brabhsálaí Tor a nuashonrú chomh luath agus go bhfuil leagan nua ar fáil.

Cuirfidh Brabhsálaí Tor in iúl duit nuair a bheidh leagan nua ar fáil.

Taispeánfaidh deilbhín an chnaipe Tor (an t-oinniún beag glas sa chúinne ag barr ar chlé den bhrabhsálaí) triantán buí.

Lorg Nuashonruithe ar Bhrabhsálaí Tor

Anois is arís feicfidh tú fógra nuair a thosaíonn Brabhsálaí Tor a deir go bhfuil nuashonrú ar fáil.

Leagan nua ar fáil

Suiteálfaidh Brabhsálaí Tor na nuashonruithe.

Leagan nua ar fáil

Tá sé an-éasca Brabhsálaí Tor a bhaint de do chóras:

  • Aimsigh an fillteán nó feidhmchlár do Bhrabhsálaí Tor ar do chóras. Is é an Deasc an suíomh réamhshocraithe ar Windows, agus an fillteán Applications ar MacOS (ar MacOS, ní mór duit é a bhogadh go dtí an fillteán Applications tar éis duit an próiseas suiteála a chur i gcrích). Níl aon suíomh réamhshocraithe ar Linux, ach is é "tor-browser_ga-IE" ainm an fhillteáin má tá an leagan Gaeilge agat.
  • Scrios an feidhmchlár nó an fillteán ina bhfuil Brabhsálaí Tor.
  • Folmhaigh an Bruscar.
  • Tabhair faoi deara nach mbaintear úsáid as an ngnáthuirlis "Díshuiteáil" ar do chóras.

Tá dhá bhealach i mBrabhsálaí Tor chun an ciorcad a athrú — "Aitheantas Nua" agus "Ciorcad Nua don Suíomh seo".

Gheobhaidh tú an dá rogha seo sa Roghchlár, agus is féidir teacht ar an rogha Ciorcad Nua sa roghchlár a thugann eolas faoin suíomh, sa mbarra URL.

Aitheantas Nua

Tá an rogha seo úsáideach má tá tú ag iarraidh aon cheangal idir do ghníomhaíocht sa todhchaí agus na rudaí a bhí tú ag déanamh níos luaithe a bhriseadh.

Nuair a roghnaítear é seo, dúnann sé do chuid cluaisíní agus fuinneoga, glanann sé aon fhaisnéis phríobháideach, mar shampla fianáin agus an stair bhrabhsála, agus úsáideann sé ciorcaid nua Tor do gach ceangal.

Tabharfaidh Brabhsálaí Tor rabhadh duit go stopfaidh sé gach uile rud atá ar siúl, íoslódálacha san áireamh. Ba chóir duit é seo a chur san áireamh sula gcliceálfaidh tú "Aitheantas Nua".

Roghchlár Bhrabhsálaí Tor

Ciorcad Nua Tor don Suíomh seo

Tá an rogha seo úsáideach mura bhfuil an t-athsheachadán amach a úsáideann tú in ann ceangal a bhunú leis an suíomh atá uait, nó mura bhfuil sé ag lódáil i gceart. Nuair a roghnaítear é seo, athlódáiltear an cluaisín nó an fhuinneog reatha thar ciorcad nua Tor.

Úsáidfidh cluaisíní agus fuinneoga oscailte eile ón suíomh céanna an ciorcad nua freisin, chomh luath is a athlódálfar iad.

Ní ghlanann an rogha seo aon fhaisnéis phríobháideach ná do chuid gníomhaíochta, agus níl aon éifeacht aige ar cheangail le suímh eile.

Ciorcad Nua don Suíomh seo

Ní bheidh. Beidh eagraíochtaí áirithe, mar shampla do Sholáthraí Seirbhíse Idirlín (ISP), in ann a fheiceáil go bhfuil tú ag baint úsáide as Tor, ach ní bheidh siad in ann na suímh a dtugann tú cuairt orthu a fheiceáil.

Nuair a úsáideann tú Brabhsálaí Tor, is minic go ndealraíonn sé go bhfuil do cheangal ag teacht ó áit éigin go hiomlán difriúil ar domhan. Dá bharr seo, tá seans ann go gceapfadh suímh áirithe, mar shampla bainc nó soláthraithe ríomhphoist, gur bhris bradaí isteach i do chuntas agus chuirfidís do chuntas faoi ghlas.

An t-aon slí atá ann leis seo a réiteach ná treoracha an tsuímh a leanúint d'athshlánú do chuntais, nó trí dul i dteagmháil le riarthóirí an tsuímh agus an fhadhb a mhíniú.

D'fhéadfá an cás seo a sheachaint go hiomlán trí úsáid a bhaint as fíordheimhniú 2-fhachtóir, rogha slándála i bhfad níos fearr ná clú bunaithe ar sheoltaí IP. Téigh i dteagmháil le do sholáthraí seirbhíse le fáil amach an bhfuil fíordheimhniú 2-fhachtóir ar fáil.

Tor Browser is currently available on Windows, Linux and macOS.

Ar Android, cuireann Tionscadal Guardian aipeanna a bhfuil Tor taobh thiar díobh ar fáil, Orbot agus Orfox.

There is no official version of Tor for iOS yet, though we recommend Onion Browser.

Níl aon bhealach oifigiúil ann faoi láthair le Brabhsálaí Tor a úsáid mar bhrabhsálaí réamhshocraithe. Déanann Brabhsálaí Tor a dhícheall a bheith neamhspleách ar an gcuid eile de do chóras, agus ní féidir leat muinín a chur sna céimeanna a dhéanfadh brabhsálaí réamhshocraithe de. Ciallaíonn sé seo go lódálfadh suíomh Gréasáin i mBrabhsálaí Tor uaireanta, agus i mbrabhsálaí eile uaireanta eile, rud contúirteach a d'fhéadfadh d'aitheantas a nochtadh.

Ní dhéantar. Ciallaíonn sé seo nach n-úsáidfear do ríomhaire chun trácht a stiúradh ar son daoine eile. Más mian leat d'athsheachadán féin a rith, féach an Lámhleabhar Athsheachadán Tor.

Rinneamar cumraíocht ar NoScript sa chaoi go gceadaíonn sé JavaScript i mBrabhsálaí Tor de réir réamhshocraithe toisc nach bhfeidhmíonn go leor suíomh Gréasáin gan JavaScript sa lá atá inniu ann. Thréigfeadh go leor úsáideoirí Tor dá mbeadh JavaScript díchumasaithe de réir réamhshocraithe mar gheall ar an líon fadhbanna a tharlódh. I ndeireadh na dála, ba mhaith linn brabhsálaí atá chomh slán agus is féidir a chruthú, agus san am céanna ceann atá inúsáidte ag formhór na ndaoine. Sin an fáth bunúsach a bhfuil JavaScript cumasaithe de réir réamhshocraithe.

Dóibh siúd ar mhaith leo JavaScript a dhíchumasú ar gach suíomh HTTP de réir réamhshocraithe, molaimid an sleamhnán slándála i mBrabhsálaí Tor a úsáid (sa roghchlár Onion faoi "Socruithe Slándála"). The standard level allows JavaScript, but the safer and safest levels both block JavaScript on HTTP sites.

Faraor, taispeánann suímh áirithe CAPTCHAnna dá gcuid úsáideoirí, agus ní féidir linn iad a bhaint de na suímh seo. An rud is fearr sa chás seo ná dul i dteagmháil le húinéirí an tsuímh, ag rá go bhfuil na CAPTCHAnna ag cur cosc ar úsáideoirí atá ag iarraidh leas a bhaint as a gcuid seirbhísí.

Ní mholaimid níos mó ná cóip amháin de Bhrabhsálaí Tor a rith san am céanna. Seans nach bhfeidhmíonn sé sa chaoi a raibh tú ag súil leis ar mhórán ardán.

We want everyone to be able to enjoy Tor Browser in their own language. Tor Browser is now available in 25 different languages, and we are working to add more. Want to help us translate? See here

You can also help us testing the next languages we will release, by installing and testing Tor Browser Alpha releases.

Nuair a úsáideann tú Brabhsálaí Tor, ní féidir le héinne na suímh a dtugann tú cuairt orthu a fheiceáil. É sin ráite, beidh do sholáthraí seirbhíse Idirlín nó riarthóirí do líonra in ann feiceáil go bhfuil tú ag baint úsáide as Tor, ach ní bheidh siad in ann na suímh a dtugann tú cuairt orthu a fheiceáil.

Uaireanta bíonn fadhbanna le Brabhsálaí Tor ar shuímh Ghréasáin a bhaineann úsáid as mórán JavaScript. An réiteach is fusa ná cliceáil ar an "roghchlár oinniúin" ansin an sleamhnán slándála a úsáid. Roghnaigh an gnáthleibhéal slándála.

Leagan de Firefox saindeartha do líonra Tor is ea Brabhsálaí Tor. Chaitheamar mórán dua le Brabhsálaí Tor, cód breise a fheabhsaíonn príobháideachas agus slándáil san áireamh. Cé gur féidir leat Tor a úsáid le brabhsálaithe eile go teicniúil, chuirfeá thú féin i mbaol ionsaithe agus do chuid sonraí pearsanta i mbaol nochta. Molaimid go láidir duit gan é seo a dhéanamh. Tuilleadh eolais maidir le dearadh Bhrabhsálaí Tor.

Cruthaíonn Brabhsálaí Tor ciorcad nua i gcomhair gach fearann nua. Tugann an cháipéis The Design and Implementation of Tor Browser tuilleadh eolais maidir leis an dearadh seo agus an smaoineamh taobh thiar de.

D'athraíomar an príomhinneall cuardaigh go DuckDuckGo i leagan 6.0.6 de Bhrabhsálaí Tor. Le tamaillín anois, ní raibh Disconnect in ann teacht ar na torthaí cuardaigh ó Google a d'úsáidimis i mBrabhsálaí Tor. Is inneall meiteachuardaigh é Disconnect a ligeann dá chuid úsáideoirí torthaí ó sholáthraithe cuardaigh éagsúla a roghnú. Mar sin, b'éigean dó dul i muinín ar thorthaí ó Bing nach raibh thar mholadh beirte.

Tá Brabhsálaí Tor bunaithe ar Firefox ESR, agus d'fhéadfadh sé go dtarlódh earráidí a bhaineann le Firefox. Ba chóir duit deimhniú nach bhfuil aon chóip eile de Bhrabhsálaí Tor ar siúl, agus gur dhíphacáil tú Brabhsálaí Tor áit éigin ina bhfuil na ceadanna cearta agat. Má tá bogearra frithvíris ar do ríomhaire, féach ar Cuireann mo bhogearra frithvíris cosc ar Bhrabhsálaí Tor.; is minic go mbíonn bogearra frithvíris ina chúis le fadhbanna den sórt seo.

Is féidir cinnte. Ach ba chóir duit a bheith ar an eolas nach mbeidh na gnéithe príobháideachais i mBrabhsálaí Tor ar fáil sa mbrabhsálaí eile. Mar sin, caithfidh tú a bheith cúramach nuair a athraíonn tú anonn is anall idir Tor agus brabhsálaí eile nach bhfuil chomh slán, sa chaoi nach ndéanann tú rud éigin sa mbrabhsálaí eile a raibh tú ag iarraidh é a dhéanamh in Tor.

Faraor níl aon bhealach oifigiúil ann le Brabhsálaí Tor a úsáid mar bhrabhsálaí réamhshocraithe.

Uaireanta, cuireann suímh cosc ar úsáideoirí toisc nach féidir leo idirdhealú a dhéanamh idir gnáthúsáideoirí Tor agus trácht uathoibrithe. An straitéis is fearr atá againn ó thaobh deireadh a chur leis an gcosc ar úsáideoirí Tor ná dul i dteagmháil go díreach le riarthóirí an tsuímh. Seans go ndéanfadh rud éigin mar seo an beart:

"Dia dhuit! Rinne mé iarracht cuairt a thabhairt ar do shuíomh xyz.com le Brabhsálaí Tor ach de réir cosúlachta cuireann sibh cosc ar úsáideoirí Tor. Molaim go láidir duit athmhachnamh a dhéanamh ar an gcinneadh seo; úsáideann daoine ar fud an domhain Tor lena bpríobháideachas a chosaint agus le troid in aghaidh cinsireachta. Trí chosc a chur ar úsáideoirí Tor, is dócha go bhfuil tú ag cur cosc ar dhaoine atá faoi smacht ina dtír dhúchais agus nach bhfuil in ann leas a bhaint as Idirlíon saor is oscailte, ar iriseoirí, taighdeoirí, daoine nochta scéil, gníomhaithe, agus gnáthdhaoine nach bhfuil sásta leis an lorgaireacht chunórach a dhéanann tríú páirtithe ar an nGréasán. Iarraim ort an fód a sheasamh ar son príobháideachais dhigitigh agus ar son saoirse Idirlín, trí chead a thabhairt d'úsáideoirí Tor xyz.com a úsáid. Go raibh míle maith agat."

I gcás bancanna nó suímh íogaire eile, feictear blocáil bunaithe ar thíreolaíocht (má tá a fhios ag an mbanc a úsáideann tú a chuid seirbhísí ó thír amháin de ghnáth, agus má fheiceann siad go bhfuil tú ag ceangal ó thír ar an taobh eile den domhan, seans go gcuirfeadh an banc do chuntas faoi ghlas nó ar fionraí).

Mura bhfuil tú in ann ceangal a bhunú le seirbhís onion, féach Nílim in ann teacht ar X.onion!

Is féidir. Chabhródh Brabhsálaí Tor le daoine do shuíomh Gréasáin a bhaint amach aon áit ina bhfuil cosc air. Most of the time, simply downloading the Tor Browser and then using it to navigate to the blocked site will allow access. In places where there is heavy censorship we have a number of censorship circumvention options available, including pluggable transports.

For more information, please see the Tor Browser User Manual section on censorship.

Molaimid go láidir gan Tor a úsáid in aon bhrabhsálaí seachas Brabhsálaí Tor. Má úsáideann tú Tor i mbrabhsálaí eile, beidh tú i mbaol ionsaithe gan na gnéithe príobháideachais i mBrabhsálaí Tor do do chosaint.

Tor Messenger

No. After eleven beta releases, we discontinued support of Tor Messenger. Creidimid go bhféadfaí Tor a úsáid in aip chumarsáide den sórt seo, ach níl na hacmhainní againn faoi láthair lena dhéanamh. Do you? Contact us.

Tor Soghluaiste

Is é Tionscadal Guardian a fhorbraíonn Tor ar Android. Gheobhaidh tú tuilleadh eolais ar na leathanaigh Ghréasáin ​Orbot agus ​Orfox. Úsáidtear Orfox chun an Gréasán a bhrabhsáil, agus stiúrann Orbot trácht ó aipeanna eile ar do ghuthán Android thar an líonra Tor.

Forbraíonn an Guardian Project Tor ar Android (agus aipeanna eile a bhaineann le príobháideachas). Is féidir leat tuilleadh eolais a fháil ar shuíomh Gréasáin an ​Guardian Project.

Is féidir. Molaimid aip iOS darb ainm Onion Browser. Tá an cód oscailte, úsáideann sé ródúchán Tor, agus oibríonn an príomhfhorbróir i ndlúthpháirt le Tionscadal Tor. Éilíonn Apple go n-úsáidfidh gach brabhsálaí ar iOS an t-inneall Webkit, agus dá bharr sin níl Onion Browser chomh héifeachtach le Brabhsálaí Tor ó thaobh príobháideachais. Tuilleadh eolais faoi Bhrabhsálaí Onion.

Níl aon bhealach oifigiúil ann faoi láthair chun Tor a úsáid ar Windows Phone.

We are currently working on Tor Browser for Android, and you can test our alpha releases. Coinnigh súil ar ár mblag le haghaidh fógraí a bhaineann leis an togra seo.

GetTor

If you can't download Tor Browser through our website, you can get a copy of Tor Browser delivered to you via GetTor. Is éard atá in GetTor ná seirbhís a fhreagraíonn teachtaireachtaí le nascanna leis an leagan is déanaí de Bhrabhsálaí Tor, óstáilte in áiteanna éagsúla nach bhfuil faoi chinsireacht, ar nós Dropbox, Tiomántán Google, agus Github.

Seol teachtaireacht rphoist chuig gettor@torproject.org. Write your operating system (such as Windows, macOS, or Linux) in the body of the message and send. GetTor will respond with an email containing links from which you can download Tor Browser, the cryptographic signature (needed for verifying the download), the fingerprint of the key used to make the signature, and the package’s checksum. Má tá rogha agat idir bogearra "32-giotán" nó "64-giotán", braitheann an freagra ar an sórt ríomhaire atá agat; féach ar an doiciméadú maidir le do ríomhaire chun tuilleadh eolais a fháil.

Le nasc íoslódála do Bhrabhsálaí Tor a fháil, seol teachtaireacht dhíreach chuig ​@get_tor a bhfuil ceann de na cóid seo a leanas inti (ní gá duit an cuntas a leanúint):

  • Linux
  • macOS (OS X)
  • Windows

Le nasc íoslódála do Bhrabhsálaí Tor a fháil, seol teachtaireacht r-phoist chuig gettor@torproject.org a bhfuil ceann de na cóid seo a leanas inti:

  • Linux
  • macOS (OS X)
  • Windows

Ag Ceangal le Tor

Is minic go mbíonn fadhb le clog an chórais ina cúis le hearráidí i mBrabhsálaí Tor. Ba chóir duit deimhniú go bhfuil clog an chórais agus an crios ama socraithe mar is ceart. If this doesn't fix the problem, see the Troubleshooting page on the Tor Browser manual.

Má tá fadhb agat ag ceangal le líonra Tor, úsáid an rogha “Cóipeáil Logchomhad Tor go dtí an Ghearrthaisce.” Ansin, greamaigh an logchomhad Tor isteach i dtéacschomhad nó i gcáipéis eile. Is dócha go bhfeicfidh tú ceann de na hearráidí coitianta seo (cuardaigh na línte seo a leanas sa logchomhad Tor):

Earráid choitianta #1 sa logchomhad: Theip ar cheangal le seachfhreastalaí
2017-10-29 09:23:40.800 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server
2017-10-29 09:24:08.900 [WARN] Proxy Client: unable to connect to xx..xxx..xxx.xx:xxxxx ("general SOCKS server failure")

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo i do logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé gur theip ort ceangal a bhunú le seachfhreastalaí SOCKS. Má theastaíonn seachfhreastalaí SOCKS uait ar do líonra, deimhnigh gur chuir tú mionsonraí an fhreastalaí isteach go ceart. Mura dteastaíonn seachfhreastalaí SOCKS uait, nó mura bhfuil tú cinnte, déan iarracht ceangal a bhunú le líonra Tor gan seachfhreastalaí SOCKS.

Earráid choitianta #2 sa logchomhad: Ní féidir garda iontrála a bhaint amach
11/1/2017 21:11:43 PM.500 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 80%: Connecting to the Tor network
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.500 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 85%: Finishing handshake with first hop
11/1/2017 21:11:45 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo sa logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé gur theip ar Tor ceangal a bhunú leis an chéad nód sa gciorcad Tor. Seans go gciallaíonn sé seo go bhfuil do líonra faoi chinsireacht.

Ba chóir duit triail a bhaint as droichead; is dócha go réiteoidh sin an fhadhb.

Earráid choitianta #3 sa logchomhad: Níorbh fhéidir an croitheadh láimhe TLS a chur i gcrích
13-11-17 19:52:24.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] Problem bootstrapping. Stuck at 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server. (DONE; DONE; count 10; recommendation warn; host [host] at xxx.xxx.xxx.xx:xxx) 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] 10 connections have failed: 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  9 connections died in state handshaking (TLS) with SSL state SSLv2/v3 read server hello A in HANDSHAKE 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  1 connections died in state connect()ing with SSL state (No SSL object)

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo i do logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé gur theip ar Tor croitheadh láimhe TLS leis na húdaráis a chur i gcrích. Is dócha go réiteoidh droichead an fhadhb seo.

Earráid choitianta #4 sa logchomhad: Clog ar sceabha
19.11.2017 00:04:47.400 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.000 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.200 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.800 [WARN] Received NETINFO cell with skewed time (OR:xxx.xx.x.xx:xxxx): It seems that our clock is behind by 1 days, 0 hours, 1 minutes, or that theirs is ahead. Tor requires an accurate clock to work: please check your time, timezone, and date settings.

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo i do logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé go bhfuil an clog i do ríomhaire mícheart. Ba chóir duit deimhniú go bhfuil an clog socraithe mar is ceart, an crios ama san áireamh. Ansin, atosaigh Tor.

Murar féidir leat an tseirbhís onion atá uait a bhaint amach, deimhnigh gur chuir tú an seoladh onion 16-carachtar, nó sa leagan is déanaí, 56-carachtar, isteach i gceart: chuirfeadh fiú botún beag Brabhsálaí Tor ar strae agus ní bheadh sé in ann an tseirbhís a bhaint amach. Mura bhfuil tú in ann ceangal a bhunú leis an tseirbhís onion fós, bain triail eile as ar ball. B'fhéidir go bhfuil fadhb shealadach leis an líonra, nó b'fhéidir gur lig stiúrthóirí an tsuímh dó dul as líne gan rabhadh.

Agus is féidir leat deimhniú go bhfuil tú in ann seirbhísí Onion eile a rochtain trí cheangal a bhunú le Seirbhís Onion DuckDuckGo.

Cinsireacht

Is féidir. Chabhródh Brabhsálaí Tor le daoine do shuíomh Gréasáin a bhaint amach aon áit ina bhfuil cosc air. Most of the time, simply downloading the Tor Browser and then using it to navigate to the blocked site will allow access. In places where there is heavy censorship we have a number of censorship circumvention options available, including pluggable transports.

For more information, please see the Tor Browser User Manual section on censorship.

Uaireanta, cuireann suímh cosc ar úsáideoirí toisc nach féidir leo idirdhealú a dhéanamh idir gnáthúsáideoirí Tor agus trácht uathoibrithe. An straitéis is fearr atá againn ó thaobh deireadh a chur leis an gcosc ar úsáideoirí Tor ná dul i dteagmháil go díreach le riarthóirí an tsuímh. Seans go ndéanfadh rud éigin mar seo an beart:

"Dia dhuit! Rinne mé iarracht cuairt a thabhairt ar do shuíomh xyz.com le Brabhsálaí Tor ach de réir cosúlachta cuireann sibh cosc ar úsáideoirí Tor. Molaim go láidir duit athmhachnamh a dhéanamh ar an gcinneadh seo; úsáideann daoine ar fud an domhain Tor lena bpríobháideachas a chosaint agus le troid in aghaidh cinsireachta. Trí chosc a chur ar úsáideoirí Tor, is dócha go bhfuil tú ag cur cosc ar dhaoine atá faoi smacht ina dtír dhúchais agus nach bhfuil in ann leas a bhaint as Idirlíon saor is oscailte, ar iriseoirí, taighdeoirí, daoine nochta scéil, gníomhaithe, agus gnáthdhaoine nach bhfuil sásta leis an lorgaireacht chunórach a dhéanann tríú páirtithe ar an nGréasán. Iarraim ort an fód a sheasamh ar son príobháideachais dhigitigh agus ar son saoirse Idirlín, trí chead a thabhairt d'úsáideoirí Tor xyz.com a úsáid. Go raibh míle maith agat."

I gcás bancanna nó suímh íogaire eile, feictear blocáil bunaithe ar thíreolaíocht (má tá a fhios ag an mbanc a úsáideann tú a chuid seirbhísí ó thír amháin de ghnáth, agus má fheiceann siad go bhfuil tú ag ceangal ó thír ar an taobh eile den domhan, seans go gcuirfeadh an banc do chuntas faoi ghlas nó ar fionraí).

Mura bhfuil tú in ann ceangal a bhunú le seirbhís onion, féach Nílim in ann teacht ar X.onion!

If you can't download Tor Browser through our website, you can get a copy of Tor Browser delivered to you via GetTor. Is éard atá in GetTor ná seirbhís a fhreagraíonn teachtaireachtaí le nascanna leis an leagan is déanaí de Bhrabhsálaí Tor, óstáilte in áiteanna éagsúla nach bhfuil faoi chinsireacht, ar nós Dropbox, Tiomántán Google, agus Github.

B'fhéidir é. Má tá, ba chóir duit triail a bhaint as droichead. Tá roinnt droichead ionsuite i mBrabhsálaí Tor, agus is féidir leat iad siúd a úsáid trí "Cumraigh" a roghnú (agus na treoracha a leanúint) sa bhfuinneog Tor Launcher a osclaíonn an chéad uair a úsáideann tú Brabhsálaí Tor. If you need other bridges, you can get them at our Bridges website. For more information about bridges, see the Tor Browser manual.

Má tá fadhb agat ag ceangal le líonra Tor, úsáid an rogha “Cóipeáil Logchomhad Tor go dtí an Ghearrthaisce.” Ansin, greamaigh an logchomhad Tor isteach i dtéacschomhad nó i gcáipéis eile. Is dócha go bhfeicfidh tú ceann de na hearráidí coitianta seo (cuardaigh na línte seo a leanas sa logchomhad Tor):

Earráid choitianta #1 sa logchomhad: Theip ar cheangal le seachfhreastalaí
2017-10-29 09:23:40.800 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server
2017-10-29 09:24:08.900 [WARN] Proxy Client: unable to connect to xx..xxx..xxx.xx:xxxxx ("general SOCKS server failure")

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo i do logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé gur theip ort ceangal a bhunú le seachfhreastalaí SOCKS. Má theastaíonn seachfhreastalaí SOCKS uait ar do líonra, deimhnigh gur chuir tú mionsonraí an fhreastalaí isteach go ceart. Mura dteastaíonn seachfhreastalaí SOCKS uait, nó mura bhfuil tú cinnte, déan iarracht ceangal a bhunú le líonra Tor gan seachfhreastalaí SOCKS.

Earráid choitianta #2 sa logchomhad: Ní féidir garda iontrála a bhaint amach
11/1/2017 21:11:43 PM.500 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 80%: Connecting to the Tor network
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.500 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 85%: Finishing handshake with first hop
11/1/2017 21:11:45 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo sa logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé gur theip ar Tor ceangal a bhunú leis an chéad nód sa gciorcad Tor. Seans go gciallaíonn sé seo go bhfuil do líonra faoi chinsireacht.

Ba chóir duit triail a bhaint as droichead; is dócha go réiteoidh sin an fhadhb.

Earráid choitianta #3 sa logchomhad: Níorbh fhéidir an croitheadh láimhe TLS a chur i gcrích
13-11-17 19:52:24.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] Problem bootstrapping. Stuck at 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server. (DONE; DONE; count 10; recommendation warn; host [host] at xxx.xxx.xxx.xx:xxx) 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] 10 connections have failed: 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  9 connections died in state handshaking (TLS) with SSL state SSLv2/v3 read server hello A in HANDSHAKE 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  1 connections died in state connect()ing with SSL state (No SSL object)

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo i do logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé gur theip ar Tor croitheadh láimhe TLS leis na húdaráis a chur i gcrích. Is dócha go réiteoidh droichead an fhadhb seo.

Earráid choitianta #4 sa logchomhad: Clog ar sceabha
19.11.2017 00:04:47.400 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.000 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.200 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.800 [WARN] Received NETINFO cell with skewed time (OR:xxx.xx.x.xx:xxxx): It seems that our clock is behind by 1 days, 0 hours, 1 minutes, or that theirs is ahead. Tor requires an accurate clock to work: please check your time, timezone, and date settings.

Má fheiceann tú línte den sórt seo i do logchomhad Tor, ciallaíonn sé go bhfuil an clog i do ríomhaire mícheart. Ba chóir duit deimhniú go bhfuil an clog socraithe mar is ceart, an crios ama san áireamh. Ansin, atosaigh Tor.

Is éard atá i nDroichead ná athsheachadán Tor nach bhfuil liostáilte san eolaire poiblí Tor. Ciallaíonn sé seo nach féidir le soláthraithe seirbhíse nó le rialtais cosc a chur ar líonra Tor trí cosc a chur ar gach uile dhroichead. Tá droichid úsáideach d'úsáideoirí Tor ina gcónaí i dtíortha faoi réimeas leatromach, nó dóibh siúd ar mhaith leo sraith bhreise slándála toisc go bhfuil imní orthu go n-aithneofar go bhfuil siad ag baint úsáide as seoladh IP ceangailte le hathsheachadán poiblí Tor.

Is gá cumraíocht rud beag difriúil a dhéanamh le droichid. Tá treoracha ar fáil faoi Conas a shocraítear droichead

Tá roinnt tíortha, an tSín agus an Iaráin san áireamh, in ann ceangail trí dhroichead Tor a aimsiú agus cosc a chur orthu. Déileálann droichid Obfsproxy leis seo trí shraith bhreise criptiúcháin a úsáid. Teastaíonn pacáiste agus cumraíocht bhreise uait chun droichead obfsproxy a shocrú. Gheobhaidh tú tuilleadh eolais ar an leathanach a bhaineann le córais iompair ionphlugáilte.

HTTPS

Cuireann Tor cosc ar chúléisteoirí na suímh a dtugann tú cuairt orthu a fheiceáil. Mar sin féin, nuair a sheolann tú faisnéis neamhchriptithe trasna an Idirlín thar HTTP, is féidir le hoibreoirí an athsheachadáin amach, nó le haon duine atá ag féachaint ar an trácht idir an athsheachadán amach agus an suíomh Gréasáin, an trácht sin a fheiceáil. Nuair a thugann tú cuairt ar shuíomh HTTPS, bíonn an trácht a fhágann an t-athsheachadán amach criptithe sa chaoi nach mbeadh cúléisteoir in ann é a léamh.

https

Má tá tú ag úsáid HTTPS, tosóidh URL an tsuímh le "https://".

https

Léiríonn an pictiúr seo an t-eolas is féidir le cúléisteoirí a fheiceáil le agus gan Brabhsálaí Tor agus criptiúchán HTTPS.

Oibreoirí

Más mian leat athsheachadán de do chuid féin a rith, gheobhaidh tú na mionsonraí go léir sa Lámhleabhar Athsheachadán Tor.

  • Rith "apt-get install tor" (mar root).
  • Deimhnigh go bhfuil an clog, an dáta, agus an crios ama socraithe mar is ceart ar do ríomhaire. Suiteáil ntp nó openntpd (nó pacáiste eile den sórt seo) chun an t-am cheart a choinneáil.
  • Cuir /etc/tor/torrc in eagar mar seo a leanas:
## Seoladh IP nó óstainm a úsáideann ceangail isteach (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus tabharfaidh Tor buille faoi thuairim)
#Address noname.example.com

## A handle for your relay, so people don't have to refer to it by key.
Nickname ididnteditheconfig

## Do chuid sonraí teagmhála
ContactInfo 0xFFFFFFFF Duine Randamach <tadhgorodai AG example ponc com>

## Má tá tú i gceannas ar níos mó ná athsheachadán amháin, cuir le clann amháin iad
#MyFamily $keyid,$keyid,...

ORPort 9001
DirPort 9030

## Socraigh an ráta bandaleithid (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus rithfidh Tor gan teorainn ar bhandaleithead)
#RelayBandwidthRate 30 MBytes
#RelayBandwidthBurst 100 MBytes

ExitPolicy reject *:*
  • Rith "service tor reload" (mar root)
  • Tar éis don athsheachadán ceangal a bhunú leis an líonra, déanfaidh sé iarracht fáil amach an bhfuil na poirt a shocraigh tú insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Bíonn an chéim seo sciobtha de ghnáth, ach uaireanta tógann sé cúpla nóiméad.
  • Téigh ar lorg iontráil in /var/log/syslog ar nós "Self-testing indicates your ORPort is reachable from the outside. Excellent." Mura bhfeiceann tú an teachtaireacht seo, ciallaíonn sé nach bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Ba chóir duit deimhniú gur shonraigh tú an seoladh IP, na poirt, agus na sonraí maidir le ballaí dóiteáin sa gcomhad torrc go ceart.
  • Nuair a dheimhníonn sé go bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte, uaslódálann sé "cur síos ar fhreastalaí" go dtí údaráis an eolaire le cur in iúl do chliaint an seoladh a úsáideann an t-athsheachadán, chomh maith le poirt, eochracha, srl.
  • After a few hours (to give it enough time to propagate), you can query Metrics to see whether your relay has successfully registered in the network. Mura bhfuil, deimhnigh an seoladh IP, na poirt, agus aon bhallaí dóiteáin arís.

Más mian leat athsheachadán de do chuid féin a rith, gheobhaidh tú na mionsonraí go léir sa Lámhleabhar Athsheachadán Tor.

  • Déan athbhreithniú ar na treoirlínte a bhaineann le hathsheachadáin amach
  • Rith "apt-get install tor" (mar root).
  • Deimhnigh go bhfuil an clog, an dáta, agus an crios ama socraithe mar is ceart ar do ríomhaire. Suiteáil ntp nó openntpd (nó pacáiste eile den sórt seo) chun an t-am cheart a choinneáil.
  • Cuir /etc/tor/torrc in eagar mar seo a leanas:
## A handle for your relay, so people don't have to refer to it by key.
Nickname ididnteditheconfig

## Do chuid sonraí teagmhála
ContactInfo 0xFFFFFFFF Duine Randamach <tadhgorodai AG example ponc com>

ORPort 9001
DirPort 9030

## Seoladh IP nó óstainm a úsáideann ceangail isteach (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus tabharfaidh Tor buille faoi thuairim)
#Address noname.example.com

## Socraigh an ráta bandaleithid (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus rithfidh Tor gan teorainn ar bhandaleithead)
#RelayBandwidthRate 30 MBytes
#RelayBandwidthBurst 100 MBytes

## Má tá tú i gceannas ar níos mó ná athsheachadán amháin, cuir le clann amháin iad
#MyFamily $keyid,$keyid,...
  • Rith "service tor reload" (mar root)
  • Tar éis don athsheachadán ceangal a bhunú leis an líonra, déanfaidh sé iarracht fáil amach an bhfuil na poirt a shocraigh tú insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Bíonn an chéim seo sciobtha de ghnáth, ach uaireanta tógann sé cúpla nóiméad.

    Téigh ar lorg iontráil in /var/log/syslog ar nós "Self-testing indicates your ORPort is reachable from the outside. Excellent." Mura bhfeiceann tú an teachtaireacht seo, ciallaíonn sé nach bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Ba chóir duit deimhniú gur shonraigh tú an seoladh IP, na poirt, agus na sonraí maidir le ballaí dóiteáin sa gcomhad torrc go ceart.

  • Nuair a dheimhníonn sé go bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte, uaslódálann sé "cur síos ar fhreastalaí" go dtí údaráis an eolaire le cur in iúl do chliaint an seoladh a úsáideann an t-athsheachadán, chomh maith le poirt, eochracha, srl.

Tar éis cúpla uair an chloig (dóthain ama chun na sonraí a bhaineann le d'athsheachadán a scaipeadh), beidh tú in ann iarratas a chur chuig Metrics le féachaint an bhfuil an t-athsheachadán cláraithe leis an líonra mar is ceart. Mura bhfuil, deimhnigh an seoladh IP, na poirt, agus aon bhallaí dóiteáin arís.

B'fhéidir gur mhaith leat athrú go dtí an polasaí éalaithe laghdaithe.

Más mian leat athsheachadán de do chuid féin a rith, gheobhaidh tú na mionsonraí go léir sa Lámhleabhar Athsheachadán Tor.

  • Rith "pkg install tor" (mar root).
  • Deimhnigh go bhfuil an clog, an dáta, agus an crios ama socraithe mar is ceart ar do ríomhaire. Molaimid duit ntpd a chumasú.
  • Cuir /usr/local/etc/tor/torrc in eagar mar seo a leanas:
## A handle for your relay, so people don't have to refer to it by key.
Nickname ididnteditheconfig

## Do chuid sonraí teagmhála
ContactInfo 0xFFFFFFFF Duine Randamach <tadhgorodai AG example ponc com>

ORPort 9001
DirPort 9030

## Socraigh an ráta bandaleithid (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus rithfidh Tor gan teorainn ar bhandaleithead)
#RelayBandwidthRate 30 MBytes
#RelayBandwidthBurst 100 MBytes

ExitPolicy reject *:*

## Má tá tú i gceannas ar níos mó ná athsheachadán amháin, cuir le clann amháin iad
#MyFamily $keyid,$keyid,...

RunAsDaemon 1
Log notice file /var/log/tor/notices.log
  • Deimhnigh go dtosóidh Tor ag am thosú an ríomhaire trí "sysrc tor_enable=YES" a rith (mar root)
  • Rith "service tor start" (mar root)
  • Tar éis don athsheachadán ceangal a bhunú leis an líonra, déanfaidh sé iarracht fáil amach an bhfuil na poirt a shocraigh tú insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Bíonn an chéim seo sciobtha de ghnáth, ach uaireanta tógann sé cúpla nóiméad.
  • Look for a log entry in /var/log/tor/notices.log such as "Self-testing indicates your ORPort is reachable from the outside. Excellent." Mura bhfeiceann tú an teachtaireacht seo, ciallaíonn sé nach bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Ba chóir duit deimhniú gur shonraigh tú an seoladh IP, na poirt, agus na sonraí maidir le ballaí dóiteáin sa gcomhad torrc go ceart.
  • Nuair a dheimhníonn sé go bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte, uaslódálann sé "cur síos ar fhreastalaí" go dtí údaráis an eolaire le cur in iúl do chliaint an seoladh a úsáideann an t-athsheachadán, chomh maith le poirt, eochracha, srl.
  • After a few hours (to give it enough time to propagate), you can query Metrics to see whether your relay has successfully registered in the network. Mura bhfuil, deimhnigh an seoladh IP, na poirt, agus aon bhallaí dóiteáin arís.

  • Ná húsáid na pacáistí i gcartlanna Ubuntu. Ní dhéantar nuashonrú orthu ar bhonn rialta. Má úsáideann tú iad, ní bhfaighidh tú nuashonruithe tábhachtacha a bhaineann le cobhsaíocht agus le slándáil.
  • Is féidir leat an leagan Ubuntu atá agat a fháil amach leis an ordú seo a leanas:
     $ lsb_release -c
    
  • As root, add the following lines to /etc/apt/sources.list. Replace 'version' with the version you found in the previous step:
     $ deb https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org version main
     $ deb-src https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org version main
    
  • Sainigh an eochair gpg a úsáideadh chun na pacáistí a shíniú leis na horduithe seo a leanas:
     $ curl https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org/A3C4F0F979CAA22CDBA8F512EE8CBC9E886DDD89.asc | sudo apt-key add -
    
  • Rith na horduithe seo a leanas chun Tor a shuiteáil agus na sínithe a dheimhniú:
     $ sudo apt-get update
     $ sudo apt-get install tor deb.torproject.org-keyring
    

  • Rith "apt-get install tor obfs4proxy" (mar root).
  • Deimhnigh go bhfuil an clog, an dáta, agus an crios ama socraithe mar is ceart ar do ríomhaire. Suiteáil ntp nó openntpd (nó pacáiste eile den sórt seo) chun an t-am cheart a choinneáil.
  • Cuir /etc/tor/torrc in eagar mar seo a leanas:
## Seoladh IP nó óstainm a úsáideann ceangail isteach (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus tabharfaidh Tor buille faoi thuairim)
#Address noname.example.com

## A handle for your relay, so people don't have to refer to it by key.
Nickname ididnteditheconfig

## Do chuid sonraí teagmhála
ContactInfo 0xFFFFFFFF Duine Randamach <tadhgorodai AG example ponc com>

BridgeRelay 1
ServerTransportPlugin obfs4 exec /usr/bin/obfs4proxy
ExtORPort auto
ORPort 9001

## Socraigh an ráta bandaleithid (fág mar nóta tráchta é agus rithfidh Tor gan teorainn ar bhandaleithead)
#RelayBandwidthRate 30 MBytes
#RelayBandwidthBurst 100 MBytes
  • Rith "service tor reload" (mar root).
  • Tar éis don athsheachadán ceangal a bhunú leis an líonra, déanfaidh sé iarracht fáil amach an bhfuil na poirt a shocraigh tú insroichte ón taobh amuigh. Bíonn an chéim seo sciobtha de ghnáth, ach uaireanta tógann sé cúpla nóiméad.
  • Téigh ar lorg iontráil in /var/log/syslog ar nós "Self-testing indicates your ORPort is reachable from the outside. Excellent." Mura bhfeiceann tú an teachtaireacht seo, ciallaíonn sé nach bhfuil an t-athsheachadán insroichte ón taobh amuigh. You should re-check your firewalls, check that the IP and ports you specified in your torrc file are correct, etc.
  • Ba chóir go mbeadh an teachtaireacht seo ann freisin: "Registered server transport 'obfs4'" indicating that obfs4proxy is functional.

Ní bheadh. Dá gcuirfeadh na gardaí spéis sa trácht atá ag dul trí d'athsheachadán amach, bheadh contúirt ann go ngabhfaidís seilbh ar do ríomhaire. Dá bharr seo, níor chóir duit athsheachadán amach a rith sa mbaile nó ar do líonra baile.

Ina áit sin, ba chóir duit an t-athsheachadán amach a rith i gcomhlacht a thacaíonn le haidhmeanna Tor. Úsáid seoladh IP ar leith don athsheachadán amach, agus ná seol do chuid tráchta féin tríd. Ar ndóigh, níor chóir duit aon fhaisnéis phearsanta nó íogair a choinneáil ar an ríomhaire a bhfuil an t-athsheachadán amach air.

Seirbhísí Onion

Tugtar "onion" ar shuíomh Gréasáin nach féidir teacht air ach trí líonra Tor, agus úsáideann na suímh seo an fearann barrleibhéil .onion. Mar shampla, is é https://3g2upl4pq6kufc4m.onion an onion i gcomhair DuckDuckGo. Is féidir leat Brabhsálaí Tor a úsáid chun teacht ar na suímh seo. Caithfidh tú na seoltaí a fháil go díreach ó óstach an tsuímh, toisc nach bhfuil suímh onion innéacsaithe ag innill chuardaigh sa chaoi a ndéantar le gnáthshuímh Ghréasáin.

Is féidir seirbhísí onion a úsáid chun brabhsáil ar ndóigh, ach is féidir iad a úsáid chun ábhar a fhoilsiú freisin, suímh Ghréasáin gan ainm san áireamh.

Le seirbhísí Onion is féidir comhrá a dhéanamh agus comhaid a chomhroinnt gan meiteashonraí; éascaíonn siad cumarsáid idir iriseoirí agus a gcuid foinsí eolais trí sheirbhísí ar nós SecureDropOnionShare; ligeann siad duit bogearraí a nuashonrú go sábháilte; agus soláthraíonn siad bealach níos sábháilte le cuairt a thabhairt ar shuímh mór-le-rá ar nós Facebook.

These services use the special-use top level domain (TLD) .onion (instead of .com, .net, .org, etc..) and are only accessible through the Tor network.

Nuair a thugann tú cuairt ar shuíomh a úsáideann seirbhís onion, taispeánann Brabhsálaí Tor oinniún beag glas sa mbarra URL a léiríonn staid an cheangail: slán agus seirbhís onion i bhfeidhm.

Oinniún beag

And if you're accessing a website with HTTPS and onion service, it will show an icon of a green onion and a padlock.

Oinniún glas le glas fraincín

Murar féidir leat an tseirbhís onion atá uait a bhaint amach, deimhnigh gur chuir tú an seoladh onion 16-carachtar, nó sa leagan is déanaí, 56-carachtar, isteach i gceart: chuirfeadh fiú botún beag Brabhsálaí Tor ar strae agus ní bheadh sé in ann an tseirbhís a bhaint amach. Mura bhfuil tú in ann ceangal a bhunú leis an tseirbhís onion fós, bain triail eile as ar ball. B'fhéidir go bhfuil fadhb shealadach leis an líonra, nó b'fhéidir gur lig stiúrthóirí an tsuímh dó dul as líne gan rabhadh.

Agus is féidir leat deimhniú go bhfuil tú in ann seirbhísí Onion eile a rochtain trí cheangal a bhunú le Seirbhís Onion DuckDuckGo.

Topaicí Éagsúla

The community team has developed this Glossary of terms about and related to Tor

A

add-on, extension, or plugin

Add-ons, extensions, and plugins are components that can be added to web browsers to give them new features. Tor Browser comes with two add-ons installed: NoScript and HTTPS Everywhere. You should not install any additional add-ons to Tor Browser because that can compromise some of its privacy features.

antivirus software

An antivirus software is used to prevent, detect and remove malicious software. Antivirus software can interfere with Tor running on your computer. You may need to consult the documentation for your antivirus software if you do not know how to allow Tor.

App

A web application (web app), is an application which the client runs in a web browser. App can also refer to software that you install on mobile operating systems.

Atlas

Atlas is a web application to learn about currently running Tor relays.

B

bandwidth authority

To determine a relay's throughput, special relays called bandwidth authorities take periodic measurements of the relays in the consensus.

bridge

Like ordinary Tor relays, bridges are run by volunteers; unlike ordinary relays, however, they are not listed publicly, so an adversary cannot identify them easily. Pluggable transports are a type of bridge that help disguise the fact that you are using Tor.

bridge authority

A special-purpose relay that maintains the list of bridges.

browser fingerprinting

Fingerprinting is the process of collecting information about a device or service to make educated guesses about its identity or characteristics. Unique behavior or responses can be used to identify the device or service analyzed. Tor Browser prevents fingerprinting.

browsing history

A browser history is a record of requests made while using a web browser, and includes information like websites visited and when. Tor Browser deletes your browsing history after you close your session.

C

CAPTCHA

Captchas are a challenge-response test used in computing to determine whether the user is human or not. Tor users are often served captchas because Tor relays make so many requests that sometimes websites have a hard time determining whether or not those requests are coming from humans or from bots.

checksum

Checksums are hashvalues of files. If you have downloaded the software without errors, the given checksum and the checksum of your downloaded file will be identical.

circuit

A path through the Tor network built by clients consisting of randomly selected nodes. The circuit begins with either a bridge or a guard. Most circuits consist of three nodes - a guard or bridge, a middle relay, and an exit. Most onion services use six hops in a circuit (with the exception of single onion services), and never an exit node. You can view your current Tor circuit by clicking on the onion button in Tor Browser.

client

In Tor, a client is a node in the Tor network, typically running on behalf of one user, that routes application connections over a series of relays.

Compass

Compass is a web application to learn about currently running Tor relays in bulk.

consensus

In Tor terms, a single document compiled and voted on by the directory authorities once per hour, ensuring that all clients have the same information about the relays that make up the Tor network.

cookie

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing. Tor Browser does not store cookies.

cross-site scripting (XSS)

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) allows an attacker to add malicious functionality or behavior to a website when they shouldn't have the ability to do so.

cryptographic signature

A cryptographic signature proves the authenticity of a message or file. It is created by the holder of the private portion of a public key cryptography key pair and can be verified by the corresponding public key. If you download software from torproject.org, you will find it as signature files (.asc). These are PGP signatures, so you can verify that the file you have downloaded is exactly the one that we intended you to get. For more information about how you can verify signatures, please see here.

D

Daemon

A daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of a user.

directory authority

A special-purpose relay that maintains a list of currently-running relays and periodically publishes a consensus together with the other directory authorities.

E

encryption

The process of taking a piece of data and scrambling it into a secret code that can only be read by the intended recipient. Tor uses three layers of encryption in the Tor circuit; each relay decrypts one layer before passing the request on to the next relay.

end-to-end encrypted

Transmitted data which is encrypted from origin to destination is called end-to-end encrypted.

exit

The last relay in the Tor circuit which sends traffic out onto the public Internet. The service you are connecting to (website, chat service, email provider, etc..) will see the IP address of the exit.

ExoneraTor

The ExoneraTor service maintains a database of relay IP addresses that have been part of the Tor network. It answers the question whether there was a Tor relay running on a given IP address on a given date. This service is often useful when dealing with law enforcement.

F

Firefox

Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation. Tor Browser is built from a modified version of Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release). Firefox is available for Windows, macOS and Linux operating systems, with its mobile version (fennec) available for Android.

firewall

A firewall is a network security system which monitors and controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic. This traffic filter is based on predetermined rules. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another outside network but it can also be used as a content filter in the sense of censorship. Sometimes people have trouble connecting to Tor because their firewall blocks Tor connections. You can reconfigure or disable your firewall and restart Tor to test this.

Flash Player

Flash Player is a browser pluginfor Internet applications to watch audio and video content. You should never enable Flash to run in Tor Browser as it is unsafe. Many services that use Flash also offer an HTML5 alternative, which should work in the Tor Browser.

fte

FTE (format-transforming encryption) is a pluggable transport that disguises Tor traffic as ordinary web (HTTP) traffic.

G

GetTor

It is a service that automatically responds to messages (Email, XMPP, Twitter) with links to the latest version of Tor Browser, hosted at a variety of locations, such as Dropbox, Google Drive and GitHub.

GSoC

The Tor Project participates in the Google Summer of Code, which is a summer program for university students.

guard

The first relay in the Tor circuit, unless using a bridge. When using a bridge, the bridge takes the place of the guard.

H

hash

A cryptographic hash value is the result of a mathematical algorithm that maps data to a bit string of a fixed size. It's designed as one-way-function which means the value is easy to calculate in one direction but infeasible to invert. Hash values serve to verify the integrity of data.

hidden services

Former name for "onion services", sometimes still in use in Tor documentation or communication.

hop

In Tor terms, a "hop" refers to traffic moving between relays in a circuit.

HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a channel used to send files and data between devices on a network. Originally used to transfer only web pages, it is now relied upon to deliver many forms of data and communication.

HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is the encrypted version of the HTTP channel used to transfer files and data between devices on a network.

HTTPS Everywhere

HTTPS Everywhere is a Firefox, Chrome, and Opera extension that makes HTTPS the default on websites that have set up HTTPS but have not made it the default. HTTPS Everywhere is installed in Tor Browser.

I

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet. When using Tor Browser, your ISP cannot see what websites you're visiting.

IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical (or alpha-numeric in the case of IPv6) label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. The IP address is the location address of the device, similar to the addresses of physical locations. Tor Browser obscures your location by making it look like your traffic is coming from an IP address that is not your own.

J

JavaScript

JavaScript is a programming language that websites use to offer interactive elements such as video, animation, audio, and status timelines. Unfortunately, JavaScript can also enable attacks on the security of the web browser, which might lead to deanonymization. The NoScript extension in Tor Browser can be used to manage JavaScript on different websites.

K

L

little-t tor

"little-t tor" is one way of referring to tor the network daemon, as opposed to Tor Browser or Tor Project.

M

meek

These pluggable transports all make it look like you are browsing a major web site instead of using Tor. Meek-amazon makes it look like you are using Amazon Web Services; meek-azure makes it look like you are using a Microsoft web site; and meek-google makes it look like you are using Google search.

middle relay

The middle position in the Tor circuit. Non-exit relays can function as either a "middle" or a "guard" for different users.

N

New Identity

New Identity is a Tor Browser feature if you want to prevent your subsequent browser activity from being linkable to what you were doing before. Selecting it will close all your open tabs and windows, clear all private information such as cookies and browsing history, and use New Tor circuits for all connections. Tor Browser will warn you that all activity and downloads will be stopped, so take this into account before clicking “New Identity”. New Identity can also help if Tor Browser is having trouble connecting to a particular site, similarly to "New Tor Circuit for this Site".

New Tor Circuit for this Site

This option is useful if the exit you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Selecting it will cause the currently active tab or window to be reloaded over a new Tor circuit. Other open tabs and windows from the same website will use the new circuit as well once they are reloaded. This option does not clear any private information or unlink your activity, nor does it affect your current connections to other websites.

network censorship

Sometimes the direct access to the Tor network is blocked by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) or by a government. Tor Browser includes some circumvention tools for getting around these blocks, including bridges, pluggable transports, and GetTor.

NoScript

Tor Browser includes an add-on called NoScript, accessed through the “S” icon at the top-left of the window, which allows you to control the JavaScriptthat runs on individual web pages, or to block it entirely.

nyx

The anonymizing relay monitor (formerly arm, now nyx) is a terminal status monitor for Tor, intended for command-line usage. This is a tool for monitoring the core Tor process on a system, often useful for relay operators.

O

obfs3

Obfs3 is a pluggable transport that makes Tor traffic look random, so that it does not look like Tor or any other protocol. Obfs3 bridges will work in most places.

obfs4

Obfs4 is a pluggable transport that makes Tor traffic look random like obfs3, and also prevents censors from finding bridges by Internet scanning. Obfs4 bridges are less likely to be blocked than obfs3 bridges.

onion address

A standardized internet domain name used by onion services that ends in .onion and is designed to be self-authenticating.

OONI

OONI stands for "Open Observatory of Network Interference", it is a global observation network for detecting censorship, surveillance and traffic manipulation on the internet.

Onion Browser

An iOS app which is open source, uses Tor routing, and is developed by someone who works closely with the Tor Project. Learn more about Onion Browser

onion services

Onion services (formerly known as “hidden services”) are services (like websites) that are only accessible through the Tor network. Onion services offer advantages over ordinary services on the non-private web, including:

Onionoo

Onionoo is a web-based protocol to learn about currently running Tor relays and bridges. Onionoo provides the data for other applications and websites(compass, atlas, etc..) which in turn present Tor network status information to humans.

onionsite

An onionsite is another name for an onion service, but refers exclusively to websites. These websites use the .onion Top Level Domain (TLD).

onionspace

The set of available onion services. For example, you can say "my site is in onionspace" instead of "my site is in the Dark Web."

Operating System (OS)

The main system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The most used desktop operating systems are Windows, macOS and Linux. Android and iOS are the dominant mobile operating systems.

Orbot

Orbot is a free app from The Guardian Project that empowers other apps on your device to use the internet more securely. Orbot uses Tor to encrypt your Internet traffic and hide it by bouncing through a series of computers around the world.

Orfox

Orfox is free app from The Guardian Project built from the same source code as Tor Browser which is built upon Firefox, but with a few minor modifications to the privacy enhancing features to make them compatible with Firefox for Android and the Android operating system.

P

pluggable transports

Tools that Tor can use to disguise the traffic it sends out. This can be useful in situations where an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or other authority is actively blocking connections to the Tor network.

private key

The private portion of a public/private key pair. This is the key that must be kept private, and not disseminated to others.

proxy

A proxy is a middle man between a client (like a web browser) and a service (like a web server). Instead of connecting directly to the service, a client sends the message to the proxy. The proxy makes the request on behalf of the client, and passes the response back to the client. The service only communicates with and sees the proxy.

public key

The public portion of a public/private key pair. This is the key that can be disseminated to others.

public key cryptography

A public-key cryptography system uses pairs of mathematical keys. The public key can be disseminated widely while its belonging private key is known only by the owner of the key pair. Any person can encrypt a message using the public key of the receiver but only the receiver in possession of the private key is able to decrypt the message. Additionally, the private key can be used to create a signature to proof the identity of the creator of a message or other files. This signature can be verified by the public key.

Q

R

relay

A publicly-listed node in the Tor network that forwards traffic on behalf of clients, and that registers itself with the directory authorities.

S

Satori

It is an add-on for the Chrome or Chromium browsers that allows you to download several security and privacy programs, including Tor Browser, from different sources. You can Install Satori from the Chrome Web Store.

scramblesuit

Scramblesuit is similar to obfs4 but has a different set of bridges.

script

Elements used for offering dynamic/interactive content via websites.

self-authenticating address

The specialized address format of onion addresses is self-authenticating. The format automatically guarantees that the onion address is bound to the key used to protect connections to the onionsite. Ordinary internet domain names require site owners to trust and be approved by a Certificate Authority (CA) for this binding, and they are subject to hijack by the CA and typically by many other parties as well.

server

A device on a network which offers a service, such as file and web page storage, email or chat.

session

A session refers to a conversation between two devices communicating on a network. Using Tor Browser means that your session data will be wiped when you close the web browser.

single onion service

A single onion service is an onion service that can be configured for services that do not require anonymity, but want to offer it for clients connecting to their service. Single onion services use only three hops in the circuit rather than the typical six hops for onion services.

Stem

Stem is a Python (programming language) controller library for core Tor. If you want to control core Tor with python, this is for you.

Sybil attack

The Sybil attack in computer security is an attack wherein a reputation system is subverted by creating a large number of identities, and using them to gain a disproportionately large influence in the network.

T

Tails

Tails is a "live" operating system, that you can start on almost any computer from a DVD, USB stick, or SD card. It aims to preserve your privacy and anonymity. Learn more about Tails.

The Tor Project

The Tor Project can refer to either The Tor Project Inc, a 501(c)3 US nonprofit responsible for maintaining the Tor software, or the Tor Project community made up of thousands of volunteers from all over the world who help create Tor.

third-party tracking

Most websites use numerous third-party services, including advertising and analytics trackers, which collect data about your IP address, web browser, system and your browsing behavior itself, all of which can link your activity across different sites. Tor Browser prevents a lot of this activity from happening.

Tor / Tor network/ Core Tor

Tor is a program you can run on your computer that helps keep you safe on the Internet. It protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location. This set of volunteer relays is called the Tor network. Sometimes the software associated with this network is called Core Tor, and sometimes "little-t tor". The way most people use Tor is with Tor Browser which is a version of Firefox that fixes many privacy issues.

Tor Browser

Tor Browser uses the Tor network to protect your privacy and anonymity. Your internet activity, including the names and addresses of the websites you visit, will be hidden from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) and from anyone watching your connection locally. The operators of the websites and services that you use, and anyone watching them, will see a connection coming from the Tor network instead of your real Internet (IP) address, and will not know who you are unless you explicitly identify yourself. In addition, Tor Browser is designed to prevent websites from “fingerprinting” or identifying you based on your browser configuration. By default, Tor Browser does not keep any browsing history. Cookies are only valid for a single session (until Tor Browser is exited or a New Identity is requested).

Tor Launcher

When you run Tor Browser for the first time, you see the Tor Launcher window. It offers you the option to connect directly to the Tor network, or to configure Tor Browser for your connection. In the second case Tor Launcher will take you through a series of configuration options.

Tor log

"Tor log" is an automatically-generated list of Tor’s activity that can help diagnose problems. When something goes wrong with Tor, you may see an option with the error message to "copy Tor log to clipboard". If you don't see this option and you have Tor Browser open, you can navigate to the Torbutton (on the top left of the browser, to the left of the URL bar). Click the Tor button, then open Tor Network Settings. You should see an option at the bottom to copy the log to your clipboard, which you can then paste to a document to show whoever is helping you troubleshoot.

Tor Messenger

Tor Messenger was a cross-platform chat program that aimed to be secure by default and send all of its traffic over Tor. Tor Messenger is not in development anymore. It supported Jabber (XMPP), IRC, Google Talk, Facebook Chat, Twitter, Yahoo, and others; enabled Off-the-Record (OTR) Messaging automatically; and had an easy-to-use graphical user interface localized into multiple languages.

TorBirdy

This extension configures Thunderbird to make connections over Tor.

Torbutton

A button marked by a little green onion to the left of the URL bar. Its menu offers you "New Identity", "Security Settings..." and "Check for Tor Browser Update..." options.

torrc

The core Tor configuration file.

Torsocks

Torsocks allows you to use many applications in a safer way with Tor. It ensures that DNS requests are handled safely and explicitly rejects any traffic other than TCP from the application you're using.

Tor2Web

Tor2web is a project to let users access onion services without using the Tor Browser. NOTE: This is not as safe as connecting to the onion services via Tor Browser, and will remove all Tor-related protections the client would otherwise have.

TPI

TPI is an acronym for The Tor Project, Inc.

tpo

People on IRC often use tpo to abbreviate torproject.org when writing hostnames. For example, trac.tpo is an abbreviation for trac.torproject.org.

traffic

Traffic is the data sent and received by clients and servers.

U

V

W

Web Browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. Major web browsers include Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Safari.

website mirror

A website mirror is an one-to-one copy of a website which you can find under other web addresses. A current list of torproject.org mirrors is available at https://www.torproject.org/getinvolved/mirrors.html.en.

X

Y

Z

Níl forbróirí Tor in ann aon rud a dhéanamh chun úsáideoirí Tor a lorg. Ní féidir linn úsáideoirí a lorg mar gheall ar na gnéithe céanna a chosnaíonn do chuid faisnéis phearsanta ar dhrochdhaoine.

Faoi láthair, tá Tor códáilte le 3 nód a úsáid, móide líon na n-athsheachadán sa chosán atá íogair. Is é sin le rá, úsáideann sé 3 cinn de ghnáth, ach má tá tú ag úsáid seirbhíse onion nó seoladh ".exit", d'fhéadfadh sé a bheith níos mó ná 3 cinn.

Níor mhaith linn moladh do dhaoine cosáin níos faide a úsáid toisc go gcruthódh sé sin lód níos troime ar an líonra, gan (go bhfios dúinn) slándáil a fheabhsú. Chomh maith leis sin, le níos mó ná 3 nód bíonn sé níos éasca ionsaithe diúltú slándála a dhéanamh, agus nochtann sé eolas fútsa mura bhfuil mórán daoine ag baint úsáid as an líon céanna nód.

Cumraítear go leor athsheachadán le cosc a chur ar chineálacha áirithe tráchta a bhaineann le comhroinnt comhad, mar shampla BitTorrent. Dá bharr sin, níl sé sábháilte BitTorrent a úsáid le Tor.

Chun comhaid a roinnt trí Tor, molaimid OnionShare.

Is féidir, ach ní mholaimid VPN a úsáid le Tor murar úsáideoir ardleibhéil thú agus mura bhfuil saineolas agat ar conas is féidir Tor agus an VPN a chumrú sa chaoi nach gcuirfidís do phríobháideachas i gcontúirt.

Is féidir teacht ar thuilleadh eolais maidir le Tor agus VPN ar ár vicí.

Go raibh maith agat as tacú le Tor! Tá tuilleadh eolais ar fáil ar an leathanach seo: Ceisteanna Coitianta do dheontóirí.

Dearadh Tor chun cearta daonna agus príobháideachas a chosaint trí chosc a chur ar dhaoine cinsireacht a dhéanamh, muidne san áireamh. Is fuath linn go ndéanann daoine áirithe rudaí uafásacha ar líonra Tor, ach ní féidir linn bata is bóthar a thabhairt dóibh gan go leor gníomhaíoch, iriseoirí, agus daoine a tháinig slán ó dhroch-íde a chur i gcontúirt. Dá gcuirfimis cosc ar dhaoine áirithe, an bealach amháin a bheadh againn é sin a dhéanamh ná saghas "cúldorais" a chur ar fáil, rud a chuirfeadh ár gcuid úsáideoirí ionraice i gcontúirt ó dhrochrialtais agus ó naimhde eile.

Tá Tor á mhaoiniú ag urraitheoirí éagsúla, gníomhaireachtaí rialtais SAM, fondúireachtaí príobháideacha, agus daoine aonair san áireamh. Féach liosta ár gcuid urraitheoirí chomh maith le sraith postálacha blag maidir lenár dtuarascálacha airgeadais.

We feel that talking openly about our sponsors and funding model is the best way to maintain trust with our community. Bímid ag lorg foinsí maoinithe níos ilchineálaí i gcónaí, go háirithe ó fhondúireachtaí agus ó dhaoine aonair.

Ní mholaimid duit Tor a úsáid le BitTorrent. Chun tuilleadh eolais a fháil, féach ar ​phostáil bhlag a bhaineann leis an ábhar seo.

Is oth linn a rá go bhfuil bogearra mailíseach ar do ríomhaire. Ní muidne a chruthaigh an bogearra mailíseach seo. Tá na daoine a chruthaigh é ag iarraidh ort Brabhsálaí Tor a íoslódáil anois sa chaoi go mbeidh tú in ann dul i dteagmháil leo gan ainm chun an t-airgead fuascailte a íoc.

Más é seo an chéad uair a chuala tú faoi Bhrabhsálaí Tor, b'fhéidir go gceapann tú gur drochdhaoine muid, agus go soláthraímid uirlisí do dhaoine fiú níos measa.

Ach leis an bhfírinne a rá, úsáideann go leor daoine ár gcuid bogearraí go laethúil ar bhealaí dlisteanacha: gníomhaithe ar son cearta daonna, iriseoirí, daoine a tháinig slán ó dhroch-íde sa mbaile, daoine nochta scéil, gardaí, agus neart eile. Faraor, is féidir le coirpigh agus le húdair bogearraí mailíseacha leas a bhaint as an gcosaint chéanna a sholáthraíonn Tor do na grúpaí seo. Níl aon ghlacadh againn le daoine a úsáideann ár gcuid bogearraí ar bhealaí mailíseacha.

Ní choinníonn Tor aon logchomhad a chabhródh linn úsáideoirí a aithint. Ní dhéanaimid ach tomhas rialta ar fheidhmiú an líonra, agus tá na huimhreacha sin ar fáil ar ​Meadaracht Tor.

Ní chuirimid aon seirbhísí ar líne ar fáil. Gheobhaidh tú liosta dár dtionscadail ar fad ar ​an leathanach seo.

Ní dhéanaimid cothabháil ar Vidalia a thuilleadh. Tá cuid mhaith de na gnéithe in Vidalia ar fáil i mBrabhsálaí Tor anois.