Preguntes més freqüents

En termes generals, no recomanem utilitzar una VPN amb Tor llevat que sigueu un usuari avançat que sàpiga com configurar-los d'una manera que no comprometi la vostra privadesa.

Podeu trobar informació més detallada sobre Tor + VPN al nostre wiki.

El Navegador Tor es troba disponible actualment per al Windows, Linux i macOS.

Hi ha una versió del Navegador Tor per a l'Android i The Guardian Project ofereix també l'aplicació Orbot per a encaminar altres aplicacions del vostre dispositiu Android per la xarxa Tor.

Encara no hi ha una versió oficial del Tor per a l'iOS, tot i que recomanem l'Onion Browser.

Desaconsellem encaridament que instal·leu complements nous en el Navegador Tor, ja que poden comprometre la vostra privadesa i seguretat.

Instal·lar complements podria afectar el Navegador Tor en maneres imprevisibles i fer única la vostra empremta digital. Si la vostra còpia del Navegador Tor té una empremta única, les vostres activitats poden deixar de ser anònimes i es poden rastrejar, encara que estigueu utilitzant el Navegador Tor.

Bàsicament, la configuració i funcions de cada navegador creen el que es coneix com a «empremta del navegador». La majoria dels navegadors creen sense voler una empremta única per a cada usuari que es pot rastrejar a través de la internet. El Navegador Tor està específicament dissenyat per a tenir una empremta quasi idèntica (no som perfectes!) entre tots els seus usuaris. Això significa que cada usuari del Navegador Tor sembla com qualsevol altre usuari d'aquest, fent que rastrejar un usuari individual sigui difícil.

També hi ha una probabilitat alta de què un complement nou incrementi la superfície d'atac del Navegador Tor. Això podria permetre que es filtressin dades sensibles o permetre que un atacant infectés el Navegador Tor. El mateix complement podria estar dissenyat de manera maliciosa per a espiar-vos.

Tor Browser ja ve instal·lat amb dos complements: HTTPS Everywhere i NoScript, i afegir-ne qualsevol altre podria fer perdre l'anonimat

Voleu aprendre més coses sobre l'empremta del navegador? Aquí hi ha un article en el Tor Blog sobre això!

El Navegador Tor pot, per descomptat, ajudar els usuaris a accedir al vostre lloc web des d'ubicacions on estigui blocat. Normalment, només cal baixar el Navegador Tor i utilitzar-lo per a navegar per la pàgina blocada per a poder accedir-hi. En llocs on hi ha una gran censura, tenim disponibles diverses opcions d’elusió de la censura, incloent-hi transports connectables.

Per a obtenir més informació, consulteu la secció de censura del manual d’usuari del Navegador Tor.

El Navegador Tor evita que la gent conegui els llocs web que visiteu. Algunes entitats, com ara el vostre proveïdor de serveis d’Internet (ISP), podrien veure que esteu utilitzant Tor, però no sabran on aneu quan ho feu.

Quant al Tor

El nom «Tor» pot fer referència a uns quants components diferents.

Tor is a program you can run on your computer that helps keep you safe on the Internet. It protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location. This set of volunteer relays is called the Tor network.

The way most people use Tor is with Tor Browser, which is a version of Firefox that fixes many privacy issues. You can read more about Tor on our about page.

The Tor Project is a non-profit (charity) organization that maintains and develops the Tor software.

Because Tor is the onion routing network. When we were starting the new next-generation design and implementation of onion routing in 2001-2002, we would tell people we were working on onion routing, and they would say "Neat. Which one?" Even if onion routing has become a standard household term, Tor was born out of the actual onion routing project run by the Naval Research Lab.

(It's also got a fine translation from German and Turkish.)

Note: even though it originally came from an acronym, Tor is not spelled "TOR". Only the first letter is capitalized. In fact, we can usually spot people who haven't read any of our website (and have instead learned everything they know about Tor from news articles) by the fact that they spell it wrong.

No, no ho fa. Cal que utilitzeu un altre programa que comprengui eixa aplicació i el seu protocol, i que conegui com netejar o «agranar» les dades que hi envia. El Navegador Tor prova de mantenir les dades a escala d'aplicació, com ara la cadena d'agent d'usuari, uniforme per a tots els usuaris. Tor Browser can't do anything about the text that you type into forms, though.

Un servidor intermediari típic configura un servidor arreu a internet i us permet utilitzar-lo per a reconduir el vostre trànsit. Això crea una arquitectura simple i fàcil de mantenir. Tots els usuaris entren i se'n van a través del mateix servidor. El proveïdor podria cobrar per utilitzar el servidor, o finançar els seus costs mitjançant publicitat al servidor. Amb la configuració més simple, no heu d'instal·lar res. Només cal que dirigiu el navegador al servidor intermediari. Els servidors intermediaris simples són solucions adequades si no voleu protegir la vostra privadesa i anonimat en línia, i confieu que el proveïdor no faci res dolent. Alguns servidors simples utilitzen SSL per a fer segura la vostra connexió, i això us protegeix contra tafaners locals, com els que podríeu trobar en un cafè amb WiFi gratis.

Els servidors intermediaris simples també creen un punt de fallada únic. El proveïdor coneix qui sou i on navegueu en internet. Poden veure el vostre transit mentre passa a través del seu servidor. De vegades, inclús poden veure el vostre trànsit xifrat mentre l'envien al lloc web del vostre banc o comerç electrònic. Heu de confiar que el proveïdor no està vigilant el vostre trànsit, injectant els seus anuncis en el flux de dades, o enregistrant els vostres detalls personals.

El Tor passa el vostre trànsit a través de, com a mínim, 3 servidors diferents abans d'enviar-lo al seu destí. Ningú que vigili la vostra connexió a internet pot modificar ni llegir el que esteu enviat a la xarxa Tor, perquè hi ha una capa separada de xifratge per a cadascun dels tres relés. El vostre trànsit es xifra entre el client Tor (en el vostre equip) i on surt, en algun altre lloc del planeta.

I el primer servidor no veu on sóc?

Possiblement. Un primer servidor dolent pot veure que des del vostre equip arriba trànsit Tor xifrat. Tot i això, no sap qui sou i què esteu fent en la xarxa Tor. Gairebé no veu «Aquesta IP està utilitzant el Tor». El Tor no és il·legal enlloc al món. Així doncs, no feu res dolent en utilitzar-lo. De tota manera, la protecció fa que aquest servidor no pugui esbrinar ni qui sou ni on aneu en la internet.

Pot veure el meu trànsit el tercer servidor?

Possiblement. Un tercer servidor dolent pot veure el trànsit que envieu al Tor. Però no sabrà qui l'ha enviat. Si utilitzeu algun xifratge (com ara HTTPS), només sabrà quin és el seu destí. Mireu aquesta visualització del Tor i l'HTTPS per a entendre com interactuen entre ells.

Sí.

El Tor és programari lliure. Això significa que us donem els drets per a distribuir el programari Tor, tant modificat com sense modificar, tant de pagament com gratis. No cal que ens demaneu cap permís en concret.

Tot i això, si voleu redistribuir el Tor, haureu de seguir la nostra LLICÈNCIA. En resum, això significa que cal que inclogueu el nostre fitxer de LLICÈNCIA junt amb qualsevol part del programari Tor que distribuïu.

De tota manera, la majoria dels qui ens pregunten sobre això no volen distribuir només el Tor. Volen distribuir el Navegador Tor. Això inclou el Firefox Extended Support Release, i els complements NoScript i HTTPS-Everywhere. També cal que seguiu la llicència d'aquests programes. Ambdós complements del Firefox es distribueixen sota la GNU General Public License; en canvi, el Firefox ESR s'allibera sota la Mozilla Public License. La forma més senzilla d'obeir les seves llicències és incloure el codi font d'eixos programes a tots els llocs on inclogueu els mateixos programes.

També haureu d'assegurar-vos de no confondre els vostres lectors sobre què és el Tor, qui el fa, i quines propietats proporciona (i quines no). Mireu les nostres PMF sobre la marca per a més detalls.

Hi ha una gran quantitat d'altres programes que podeu utilitzar amb el Tor, però no hem investigat prou, a un nivell detallat, els problemes d'anonimat de tots ells per a poder recomanar una configuració segura. La nostra wiki té una llista d'instruccions mantinguda per la comunitat per a Torificar aplicacions específiques. Afegiu-ne a aquesta llista i ajudeu-nos a mantenir-la acurada!

La majoria de gent utilitza el Navegador Tor, que inclou tot el que necessiteu per a navegar per la web amb seguretat utilitzant el Tor. Utilitzar el Tor amb altres navegadors és perillós i no recomanable.

No hi ha cap porta del darrere en el Tor.

Coneixem uns quants advocats molt intel·ligents que diuen que és molt poc probable que ningú no ens faci afegir-ne cap en la nostra jurisdicció (EUA). Si ho intenten, els plantarem cara, i (els advocats diuen que) probablement guanyarem.

Mai no posarem cap porta del darrere en el Tor. Pensem que posar-li una porta del darrere al Tor seria tremendament irresponsable de cara als nostres usuaris, i un precedent dolent per a la seguretat del programari en general. Si mai en posarem una en el nostre programari de seguretat, arruïnaria les nostres reputacions professionals. Ningú no tornaria a confiar en el nostre programari, i amb molta raó!

Però, dit això, hi ha multitud d'atacs subtils que la gent podria intentar. Algú podria fer-se passar per nosaltres, o colar-se en els nostres ordinadors, o alguna cosa similar. El Tor és de codi obert, i sempre hauríeu de comprovar el codi (o almenys les diferències amb la versió anterior) si hi noteu alguna cosa sospitosa. Si nosaltres (o els nostres distribuïdors) no us facilitem el codi, això és un signe inequívoc que alguna cosa estranya està passant. També hauríeu de comprovar les signatures PGP de les versions noves, per a assegurar-vos que ningú no ha trastejat amb els llocs webs dels distribuïdors.

A més d'això, podrien haver-hi errors accidentals en el Tor que podrien afectar el vostre anonimat. Trobem i corregim periòdicament errors relacionats amb l'anonimat, així que assegureu-vos que teniu actualitzada la vostra versió del Tor.

Navegador Tor

WARNING: Do NOT follow random advice instructing you to edit your torrc! Doing so can allow an attacker to compromise your security and anonymity through malicious configuration of your torrc.

Tor uses a text file called torrc that contains configuration instructions for how Tor should behave. The default configuration should work fine for most Tor users (hence the warning above.)

To find your Tor Browser torrc, follow the instructions for your operating system below.

On Windows or Linux:

  • The torrc is in the Tor Browser Data directory at Browser/TorBrowser/Data/Tor inside your Tor Browser directory.

On macOS:

  • The torrc is in the Tor Browser Data directory at ~/Library/Application Support/TorBrowser-Data/Tor.
  • Note the Library folder is hidden on newer versions of macOS. To navigate to this folder in Finder, select "Go to Folder..." in the "Go" menu.
  • Then type "~/Library/Application Support/" in the window and click Go.

Close Tor Browser before you edit your torrc, otherwise Tor Browser may erase your modifications. Some options will have no effect as Tor Browser overrides them with command line options when it starts Tor.

Have a look at the sample torrc file for hints on common configurations. For other configuration options you can use, see the Tor manual page. Remember, all lines beginning with # in torrc are treated as comments and have no effect on Tor's configuration.

While the names may imply otherwise, 'Incognito mode' and 'private tabs' do not make you anonymous on the Internet. They erase all the information on your machine relating to the browsing session after they are closed, but have no measures in place to hide your activity or digital fingerprint online. This means that an observer can collect your traffic just as easily as any regular browser.

Tor Browser offers all the amnesic features of private tabs while also hiding the source IP, browsing habits and details about a device that can be used to fingerprint activity across the web, allowing for a truly private browsing session that's fully obfuscated from end-to-end.

For more information regarding the limitations of Incognito mode and private tabs, see Mozilla's article on Common Myths about Private Browsing.

Recomanem encarecidament no utilitzar Tor en cap navegador que no sigui el navegador Tor. L'ús de Tor en un altre navegador pot deixar-vos vulnerable sense les proteccions de privadesa del navegador Tor.

El Navegador Tor pot, per descomptat, ajudar els usuaris a accedir al vostre lloc web des d'ubicacions on estigui blocat. Normalment, només cal baixar el Navegador Tor i utilitzar-lo per a navegar per la pàgina blocada per a poder accedir-hi. En llocs on hi ha una gran censura, tenim disponibles diverses opcions d’elusió de la censura, incloent-hi transports connectables.

Per a obtenir més informació, consulteu la secció de censura del manual d’usuari del Navegador Tor.

De vegades, els llocs web bloquen els usuaris de Tor perquè no poden avaluar la diferència entre l'usuari Tor mitjà i el trànsit automatitzat. La millor manera que hem tingut per que els llocs desbloquin els usuaris de Tor és que els usuaris es posin en contacte directament amb els administradors del lloc. Alguna cosa així podria funcionar:

"Hola! He intentat accedir al vostre lloc xyz.com mentre feia servir el Navegador Tor i he descobert que no permet que els usuaris de Tor accedeixin al vostre lloc. Et convido a reconsiderar aquesta decisió; Tor és utilitzat per persones de tot el món per protegir la seva intimitat i lluitar contra la censura. Blocar els usuaris de Tor, probablement blocarà persones en països repressius que vulguin utilitzar una internet lliure, periodistes i investigadors que volen protegir-se de ser descoberts, denunciants, activistes i persones habituals que volen optar per un seguiment invasiu de tercers. Si us plau, prengui una posició forta a favor de la privadesa digital i la llibertat d'internet i permeti als usuaris de Tor accedir a xyz.com.Gràcies"

En el cas dels bancs i altres llocs web sensibles, també és habitual veure blocatge basat en la geografia (si un banc sap que en general accedeix als seus serveis d'un país i, de sobte, es connecta d'un repetidor de sortida a l'altre costat del món, el vostre compte pot estar blocat o suspès).

Si no podeu connectar-vos a un servei de onion, consulteu No puc accedir a X.onion!

Certament, podeu utilitzar un altre navegador mentre feu servir el Navegador Tor. Tanmateix, haureu de saber que les característiques de privadesa del navegador Tor no estaran presents a l'altre navegador. Aneu amb compte quan canvieu entre Tor i un navegador menys segur, ja que podeu utilitzar accidentalment l'altre navegador per a alguna cosa que voleu utilitzar amb Tor.

You can set Proxy IP address, port, and authentication information in Tor Browser's Network Settings. If you're using Tor another way, check out the HTTPProxy and HTTPSProxy config options in the manual page, and modify your torrc file accordingly. You will need an HTTP proxy for doing GET requests to fetch the Tor directory, and you will need an HTTPS proxy for doing CONNECT requests to get to Tor relays. (It's fine if they're the same proxy.) Tor also recognizes the torrc options Socks4Proxy and Socks5Proxy.

Also, read up on the HTTPProxyAuthenticator and HTTPSProxyAuthenticator options if your proxy requires auth. We only support basic auth currently, but if you need NTLM authentication, you may find this post in the archives useful.

If your proxies only allow you to connect to certain ports, look at the entry on Firewalled clients for how to restrict what ports your Tor will try to access.

Sometimes, after you've used Gmail over Tor, Google presents a pop-up notification that your account may have been compromised. The notification window lists a series of IP addresses and locations throughout the world recently used to access your account.

In general, this is a false alarm: Google saw a bunch of logins from different places, as a result of running the service via Tor, and decided it was a good idea to confirm the account was being accessed by its rightful owner.

Even though this may be a byproduct of using the service via Tor, that doesn't mean you can entirely ignore the warning. It is probably a false positive, but it might not be since it is possible for someone to hijack your Google cookie.

Cookie hijacking is possible by either physical access to your computer or by watching your network traffic. In theory, only physical access should compromise your system because Gmail and similar services should only send the cookie over an SSL link. In practice, alas, it's way more complex than that.

And if somebody did steal your google cookie, they might end up logging in from unusual places (though of course they also might not). So the summary is that since you're using Tor Browser, this security measure that Google uses isn't so useful for you, because it's full of false positives. You'll have to use other approaches, like seeing if anything looks weird on the account, or looking at the timestamps for recent logins and wondering if you actually logged in at those times.

More recently, Gmail users can turn on 2-Step Verification on their accounts to add an extra layer of security.

This is a known and intermittent problem; it does not mean that Google considers Tor to be spyware.

When you use Tor, you are sending queries through exit relays that are also shared by thousands of other users. Tor users typically see this message when many Tor users are querying Google in a short period of time. Google interprets the high volume of traffic from a single IP address (the exit relay you happened to pick) as somebody trying to "crawl" their website, so it slows down traffic from that IP address for a short time.

An alternate explanation is that Google tries to detect certain kinds of spyware or viruses that send distinctive queries to Google Search. It notes the IP addresses from which those queries are received (not realizing that they are Tor exit relays), and tries to warn any connections coming from those IP addresses that recent queries indicate an infection.

To our knowledge, Google is not doing anything intentionally specifically to deter or block Tor use. The error message about an infected machine should clear up again after a short time.

Google uses "geolocation" to determine where in the world you are, so it can give you a personalized experience. This includes using the language it thinks you prefer, and it also includes giving you different results on your queries.

If you really want to see Google in English you can click the link that provides that. But we consider this a feature with Tor, not a bug --- the Internet is not flat, and it in fact does look different depending on where you are. This feature reminds people of this fact.

Note that Google search URLs take name/value pairs as arguments and one of those names is "hl". If you set "hl" to "en" then Google will return search results in English regardless of what Google server you have been sent to. On a query this looks like:

https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=online%20anonymity&hl=en

Another method is to simply use your country code for accessing Google. This can be google.be, google.de, google.us and so on.

El Navegador Tor està construït utilitzant Firefox ESR, de manera que es poden produir errors respecte a Firefox. Assegureu-vos que no hi ha cap altra instància del navegador Tor que ja s'estigui executant i que hagueu extret el navegador Tor en una ubicació que el vostre usuari tingui els permisos correctes. If you are running an anti-virus, please see My antivirus/malware protection is blocking me from accessing Tor Browser, it is common for anti-virus / anti-malware software to cause this type of issue.

Amb la publicació del Navegador Tor 6.0.6, vam passar a DuckDuckGo com a motor de cerca principal. Des de fa un temps, Disconnect no ha tingut accés als resultats de cerca de Google que hem utilitzat al navegador Tor. Atès que Disconnect és més que un meta motor de cerca que permet als usuaris triar entre diferents proveïdors de cerca, es va desestimar oferir resultats de cerca de Bing que eren bàsicament inacceptables de qualitat.

El Navegador Tor és una versió modificada de Firefox dissenyada específicament per al seu ús amb Tor. S'ha fet un gran esforç per fer que el navegador Tor, inclòs l'ús de pegats addicionals per millorar la privadesa i la seguretat. Tot i que és tècnicament possible utilitzar Tor amb altres navegadors, podeu obrir-vos a possibles atacs o filtracions d'informació, de manera que us ho desaconsellem molt. Més informació sobre el disseny del navegador Tor.

De vegades, els llocs web amb molt contingut JavaScript poden tenir problemes funcionals sobre el navegador Tor. The simplest fix is to click on the Security icon (the small gray shield at the top-right of the screen), then click "Advanced Security Settings..." Establiu la seguretat a "Estàndard".

Quan utilitzeu el navegador Tor, ningú pot veure els llocs web que visiteu. Tanmateix, el vostre proveïdor de serveis o administradors de xarxa poden veure que esteu connectant a la xarxa Tor, encara que no sabran què feu quan arribeu.

We want everyone to be able to enjoy Tor Browser in their own language. Tor Browser is now available in 30 different languages, and we are working to add more. Want to help us translate? Become a Tor translator!

You can also help us in testing the next languages we will release, by installing and testing Tor Browser Alpha releases.

We do not recommend running multiple instances of Tor Browser, and doing so may not work as anticipated on many platforms.

Malauradament, alguns llocs web envien CAPTCHAs als usuaris de Tor, i no podem eliminar CAPTCHAs dels llocs web. El millor que es pot fer en aquests casos és posar-se en contacte amb els propietaris del lloc web i informar-los que els seus CAPTCHAs estan impedint que els usuaris, com vostè mateix, utilitzin els seus serveis.

Configurem NoScript per permetre JavaScript de manera predeterminada al navegador Tor perquè molts llocs web no funcionen amb JavaScript desactivat. La majoria dels usuaris renunciarien completament a Tor si desactivem JavaScript de manera predeterminada perquè causaria molts problemes per a ells. En definitiva, volem que el navegador de Tor sigui el més segur possible, a més de fer-lo servir per a la majoria de les persones, de moment, això vol dir que JavaScript està habilitat per defecte.

For users who want to have JavaScript disabled on all HTTP sites by default, we recommend changing your Tor Browser's "Security Level" option. This can be done by navigating the Security icon (the small gray shield at the top-right of the screen), then clicking "Advanced Security Settings...". The "Standard" level allows JavaScript, but the "Safer" and "Safest" levels both block JavaScript on HTTP sites.

Executar el navegador Tor no us fa actuar com un repetidor a la xarxa. Això significa que l'ordinador no s'utilitzarà per encaminar el trànsit per a tercers. Si voleu convertir-vos en un repetidor, consulteu la nostra Guia de repetidors de Tor.

Actualment, no hi ha cap mètode compatible per configurar el navegador Tor com a navegador predeterminat. El navegador Tor treballa fort per aïllar-se de la resta del sistema i els passos per fer-ho navegador predeterminat no va en aquesta linea. This means sometimes a website would load in the Tor Browser, and sometimes it would load in another browser. This type of behavior can be dangerous and break anonymity.

El Navegador Tor es troba disponible actualment per al Windows, Linux i macOS.

Hi ha una versió del Navegador Tor per a l'Android i The Guardian Project ofereix també l'aplicació Orbot per a encaminar altres aplicacions del vostre dispositiu Android per la xarxa Tor.

Encara no hi ha una versió oficial del Tor per a l'iOS, tot i que recomanem l'Onion Browser.

El navegador Tor sovint fa que la vostra connexió aparegui com si provingués d'una part completament diferent del món. Alguns llocs web, com ara bancs o proveïdors de correu electrònic, poden interpretar-ho com a signe que el vostre compte s'ha vist compromès i us poden blocar.

L'única manera de resoldre això és seguir el procediment recomanat del lloc per a la recuperació del compte o posar-se en contacte amb els operadors i explicar la situació.

És possible que pugueu evitar aquest escenari si el vostre proveïdor ofereix l'autenticació de doble factor, que és una opció de seguretat molt millor que la reputació basada en IP. Poseu-vos en contacte amb el vostre proveïdor i pregunteu-los si proporcionen 2FA. (autenticació de doble factor)

El Navegador Tor evita que la gent conegui els llocs web que visiteu. Algunes entitats, com ara el vostre proveïdor de serveis d’Internet (ISP), podrien veure que esteu utilitzant Tor, però no sabran on aneu quan ho feu.

EL Navegador Tor té dues maneres de canviar el circuit del repetidor: "Nova identitat" i "Nou circuit Tor per a aquest lloc".

Ambdues opcions es troben al Menú, però també podeu accedir a l'opció Nou Circuit dins del menú d'informació del lloc, a la barra d'URL.

Nova identitat

Aquesta opció és útil si voleu evitar que la vostra activitat posterior del navegador sigui vinculada al que hagueu fet abans.

Si ho seleccioneu, tanqueu totes les pestanyes i finestres, esborreu tota la informació privada, com ara les galetes i l'historial de navegació, i utilitzeu els nous circuits Tor per a totes les connexions.

El navegador Tor us avisarà que tota activitat i baixades s'aturaran, així que teniu això en compte abans de fer clic a «Identitat nova».

Tor Browser Menu

Nou Circuit Tor per a aquest lloc

Aquesta opció és útil si el repetidor de sortida que utilitzeu no pot connectar-se al lloc web que necessiteu o no s'ha carregat correctament. Si ho seleccioneu, es tornarà a carregar la pestanya o la finestra actualment activa en un nou circuit Tor.

Altres pestanyes obertes i finestres del mateix lloc web també usaran el nou circuit una vegada que es tornin a carregar.

Aquesta opció no elimina cap informació privada o desenllaça la vostra activitat, ni afecta les vostres connexions actuals a altres llocs web.

New Circuit for this Site

Siusplau mira la HTTPS Everywhere FAQ. Si creieu que aquest és un problema del navegador Tor, informeu-lo al nostre seguidor d'errors.

Consulteu les PMF de NoScript. Si creieu que aquest és un problema del navegador Tor, informeu-lo al nostre seguidor d'errors.

Consulteu el portal d'assistència DuckDuckGo. Si creieu que aquest és un problema del navegador Tor, informeu-lo al nostre seguidor d'errors.

DuckDuckGo és el motor de cerca predeterminat del navegador Tor. DuckDuckGo no fa el seguiment dels seus usuaris ni emmagatzema dades sobre les cerques dels usuaris. Més informació sobre la política de privadesa de DuckDuckGo.

L'ús del navegador Tor a vegades pot ser més lent que altres navegadors. The Tor network has over a million daily users, and just over 6000 relays to route all of their traffic, and the load on each server can sometimes cause latency. And, by design, your traffic is bouncing through volunteers' servers in various parts of the world, and some bottlenecks and network latency will always be present. You can help improve the speed of the network by running your own relay, or encouraging others to do so. For the much more in-depth answer, see Roger's blog post on the topic and Tor's Open Research Topics: 2018 edition about Network Performance. Dit això, Tor és molt més ràpid del que era, i és possible que no detecteu canvis en la velocitat d'altres navegadors.

Feu clic al botó «Copia registre de Tor al porta-retalls» que apareix a la finestra de diàleg quan el navegador Tor es connecta per primera vegada a la xarxa. If Tor Browser is already open, click on the Torbutton icon (the small gray onion at the top-right of the screen), then "Tor Network Settings", then "Copy Tor Log To Clipboard". Un cop copiat el registre, podreu enganxar-lo en un editor de text o un client de correu electrònic.

Un dels problemes més comuns que causa errors de connexió al navegador Tor és un rellotge del sistema incorrecte. Assegureu-vos que el rellotge del sistema i el fus horari estiguin configurats amb precisió. If this doesn't fix the problem, see the Troubleshooting page on the Tor Browser manual.

Aquest és un comportament normal a Tor El primer repetidor del circuit es diu "guarda d'entrada" o "guarda". Es tracta d'un repetidor ràpid i estable que segueix sent el primer del vostre circuit durant 2-3 mesos per protegir-se contra un atac conegut que trenca l'anonimat. La resta del circuit canvia amb cada nou lloc web que visiteu, i tots junts aquests repetidors proporcionen les proteccions completes de la privacitat de Tor. Per obtenir més informació sobre com funcionen els repetidors de guarda, consulteu aquesta publicació de blog i publicació sobre guàrdies d'entrada.

Pot ser que estigueu en una xarxa censurada i, per tant, podeu provar utilitzar ponts. Alguns ponts es creen al navegador Tor, i podeu utilitzar aquests ponts triant "configurar" (seguint les indicacions) a la finestra Tor Launcher que apareix quan obriu el navegador Tor per primera vegada. If you need other bridges, you can get them at our Bridges website. For more information about bridges, see the Tor Browser manual.

Ho sentim, però actualment no hi ha suport oficial per executar el navegador Tor a *BSD. Hi ha alguna cosa anomenat projecte TorBSD project, però el seu navegador no té suport oficial de Tor Browser.

Si executeu el navegador Tor i un altre navegador alhora, no afectarà el rendiment o les propietats de privadesa de Tor. Tanmateix, tingueu en compte que el vostre altre navegador no manté la privadesa de la vostra activitat i us pot oblidar i utilitzar accidentalment aquest navegador no privat per fer alguna cosa que voleu fer al navegador Tor.

Modificar la manera en què Tor crea els seus circuits és molt poc recomanable You get the best security that Tor can provide when you leave the route selection to Tor; overriding the entry/exit nodes can compromise your anonymity. Si el resultat que voleu és simplement poder accedir a recursos que només estan disponibles en un sol país, és possible que vulgueu considerar l'ús d'una VPN en lloc d'utilitzar Tor. Tingueu en compte que les VPN no tenen les mateixes propietats de privadesa que Tor, però ajudaran a resoldre alguns problemes de restricció de geolocalització.

Malauradament, encara no tenim una versió del navegador Tor per al Chrome OS. You could run Tor Browser for Android on Chrome OS. Note that by using Tor Mobile on Chrome OS, you will view the mobile (not desktop) versions of websites. However, because we have not audited the app in Chrome OS, we don't know if all the privacy features of Tor Browser for Android will work well.

Desaconsellem encaridament que instal·leu complements nous en el Navegador Tor, ja que poden comprometre la vostra privadesa i seguretat.

Instal·lar complements podria afectar el Navegador Tor en maneres imprevisibles i fer única la vostra empremta digital. Si la vostra còpia del Navegador Tor té una empremta única, les vostres activitats poden deixar de ser anònimes i es poden rastrejar, encara que estigueu utilitzant el Navegador Tor.

Bàsicament, la configuració i funcions de cada navegador creen el que es coneix com a «empremta del navegador». La majoria dels navegadors creen sense voler una empremta única per a cada usuari que es pot rastrejar a través de la internet. El Navegador Tor està específicament dissenyat per a tenir una empremta quasi idèntica (no som perfectes!) entre tots els seus usuaris. Això significa que cada usuari del Navegador Tor sembla com qualsevol altre usuari d'aquest, fent que rastrejar un usuari individual sigui difícil.

També hi ha una probabilitat alta de què un complement nou incrementi la superfície d'atac del Navegador Tor. Això podria permetre que es filtressin dades sensibles o permetre que un atacant infectés el Navegador Tor. El mateix complement podria estar dissenyat de manera maliciosa per a espiar-vos.

Tor Browser ja ve instal·lat amb dos complements: HTTPS Everywhere i NoScript, i afegir-ne qualsevol altre podria fer perdre l'anonimat

Voleu aprendre més coses sobre l'empremta del navegador? Aquí hi ha un article en el Tor Blog sobre això!

Només el trànsit del navegador Tor s'enviarà a la xarxa Tor. Qualsevol altra aplicació del vostre sistema (inclosos altres navegadors) no tindrà les seves connexions encaminades a la xarxa Tor i no estarà protegida. Han de configurar-se per separat per utilitzar Tor. Si heu d'assegurar-vos que tot el trànsit passarà per la xarxa Tor, feu un cop d'ull al sistema operatiu Tails Live que podreu iniciar a gairebé qualsevol ordinador des d'un llapis USB o un DVD.

Flash is disabled in Tor Browser, and we recommend you to not enable it. No creiem que Flash sigui segur d'utilitzar en qualsevol navegador: és una peça de programari molt insegura que pot comprometre la vostra privadesa fàcilment o oferir-vos programari maliciós. Afortunadament, la majoria de llocs web, dispositius i altres navegadors s'estan allunyant de l'ús de Flash.

El fitxer que heu baixat i executat us demana un lloc per la destinació. Si no recordeu quina era aquesta destinació, és probable que sigui la vostra carpeta de baixades o l'escriptori.

The default setting in the Windows installer also creates a shortcut for you on your Desktop, though be aware that you may have accidentally deselected the option to create a shortcut.

Si no podeu trobar-lo en cap d'aquestes carpetes, torneu a baixar-lo i busqueu l'indicador que us demanarà que trieu un directori per baixar-lo. Trieu una ubicació del directori que us recordeu fàcilment i, un cop finalitzada la baixada, heu de veure una carpeta del navegador Tor allà.

La majoria dels antivirus o proteccions contra programari maliciós permeten a l'usuari posar en una «llista blanca» certs processos que d'una altra forma es blocarien. Obriu l'antivirus o la protecció de programari maliciós i cerqueu a les opcions «Llista blanca» o alguna cosa semblant. A continuació, s'exclouen els següents processos:

  • Per Windows
    • firefox.exe
    • tor.exe
    • obfs4proxy.exe (si utilitzes ponts)
  • Per a macOS
    • Navegador Tor
    • tor.real
    • obfs4proxy (si utilitzeu ponts)

Finalment, reinicieu el navegador Tor. Això solucionarà els problemes que estigueu experimentant. Tingueu en compte que alguns clients antivirus, com Kaspersky, també poden blocar Tor al nivell de tallafocs.

Cada vegada que publiquem una versió estable nova del Navegador Tor, escrivim una publicació que detalla les seves funcions i problemes coneguts nous. If you started having issues with your Tor Browser after an update, check out blog.torproject.org for a post on the most recent stable Tor Browser to see if your issue is listed. Si el vostre problema no apareix, envieu un informe d'error sobre el que estigueu experimentant.

Tor Browser in its default mode is starting with a content window rounded to a multiple of 200px x 100px to prevent fingerprinting the screen dimensions. The strategy here is to put all users in a couple of buckets to make it harder to single them out. That works so far until users start to resize their windows (e.g. by maximizing them or going into fullscreen mode). Tor Browser 9 ships with a fingerprinting defense for those scenarios as well, which is called Letterboxing), a technique developed by Mozilla and presented earlier this year. It works by adding white margins to a browser window so that the window is as close as possible to the desired size while users are still in a couple of screen size buckets that prevent singling them out with the help of screen dimensions.

In simple words, this technique makes groups of users of certain screen sizes and this makes it harder to single out users on basis of screen size, as many users will have same screen size.

La signatura digital és un procés que assegura que un paquet determinat ha estat generat pels seus desenvolupadors i no ha estat alterat. Below we explain why it is important and how to verify that the Tor program you download is the one we have created and has not been modified by some attacker.

Each file on our download page is accompanied by a file with the same name as the package and the extension ".asc". These .asc files are OpenPGP signatures. They allow you to verify the file you've downloaded is exactly the one that we intended you to get.

For example, torbrowser-install-win64-9.0_en-US.exe is accompanied by torbrowser-install-win64-9.0_en-US.exe.asc.

We now show how you can verify the downloaded file's digital signature on different operating systems. Please notice that a signature is dated the moment the package has been signed. Therefore every time a new file is uploaded a new signature is generated with a different date. As long as you have verified the signature you should not worry that the reported date may vary.

Installing GnuPG

First of all you need to have GnuPG installed before you can verify signatures.

For Windows users:

If you run Windows, download Gpg4win and run its installer.

In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in windows command-line, cmd.exe.

Per a usuaris macOS:

If you are using macOS, you can install GPGTools.

In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in the Terminal (under "Applications").

For GNU/Linux users:

If you are using GNU/Linux, then you probably already have GnuPG in your system, as most GNU/Linux distributions come with it preinstalled.

In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in a terminal window. How to do this will vary depending on your distribution.

Fetching the Tor Developers key

The Tor Browser team signs Tor Browser releases. Import the Tor Browser Developers signing key (0xEF6E286DDA85EA2A4BA7DE684E2C6E8793298290):

gpg --auto-key-locate nodefault,wkd --locate-keys torbrowser@torproject.org

This should show you something like:

gpg: key 4E2C6E8793298290: public key "Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser@torproject.org>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
pub   rsa4096 2014-12-15 [C] [expires: 2020-08-24]
      EF6E286DDA85EA2A4BA7DE684E2C6E8793298290
uid           [ unknown] Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser@torproject.org>
sub   rsa4096 2018-05-26 [S] [expires: 2020-09-12]

After importing the key, you can save it to a file (identifying it by fingerprint here):

gpg --output ./tor.keyring --export 0xEF6E286DDA85EA2A4BA7DE684E2C6E8793298290

Verifying the signature

To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the corresponding ".asc" signature file as well as the installer file itself, and verify it with a command that asks GnuPG to verify the file that you downloaded.

The examples below assume that you downloaded these two files to your "Downloads" folder.

For Windows users:

gpgv --keyring .\tor.keyring Downloads\torbrowser-install-win64-9.0_en-US.exe.asc Downloads\torbrowser-install-win64-9.0_en-US.exe

Per a usuaris macOS:

gpgv --keyring ./tor.keyring ~/Downloads/TorBrowser-9.0-osx64_en-US.dmg{.asc,}

For GNU/Linux users (change 64 to 32 if you have the 32-bit package):

gpgv --keyring ./tor.keyring ~/Downloads/tor-browser-linux64-9.0_en-US.tar.xz{.asc,}

The result of the command should produce something like this:

gpgv: Signature made 07/08/19 04:03:49 Pacific Daylight Time
gpgv:                using RSA key EB774491D9FF06E2
gpgv: Good signature from "Tor Browser Developers (signing key) <torbrowser@torproject.org>"

Workaround (using a public key)

If you encounter errors you cannot fix, feel free to download and use this public key instead. Alternatively, you may use the following command:

curl -s https://openpgpkey.torproject.org/.well-known/openpgpkey/torproject.org/hu/kounek7zrdx745qydx6p59t9mqjpuhdf |gpg --import -

You may also want to learn more about GnuPG.

Tor Messenger

No. After eleven beta releases, we discontinued support of Tor Messenger. Encara creiem en la capacitat de Tor d'utilitzar-se en una aplicació de missatgeria, però no tenim els recursos per fer-ho en aquest moment. Do you? Contact us.

Tor mòbil

It will be, soon. In the meantime you can use F-Droid to download Tor Browser for Android by enabling the Guardian Project's Repository.

Learn how to add a repository to F-Droid.

While both Tor Browser for Android and Orbot are great, they serve different purposes. Tor Browser for Android is like the desktop Tor Browser, but on your mobile device. It is a one stop browser that uses the Tor network and tries to be as anonymous as possible. Orbot on the other hand is a proxy that will enable you to send the data from your other applications (E-Mail clients, instant messaging apps, etc.) through the tor network; a version of Orbot is also inside of the Tor Browser for Android, and is what enables it to connect to the Tor network. That version, however, does not enable you to send other apps outside of the Tor Browser for Android through it. Depending on how you want to use the tor network, either one or both of these could be a great option.

Actualment, no hi ha cap mètode compatible per executar Tor en Windows Phone.

Recomanem una aplicació per a iOS anomenada Navegador Onion, que es de codi obert, utilitza l'enrutament Tor, i està desenvolupada per algú que treballa de prop amb el projecte Tor. No obstant això, Apple requereix que els navegadors d'iOS utilitzin alguna cosa anomenat Webkit, que impedeix que el navegador Onion tingui les mateixes proteccions de privadesa que el navegador Tor.

Learn more about Onion Browser. Download Onion Browser from the App Store.

The Guardian Project maintains Orbot (and other privacy applications) on Android. More info can be found on the Guardian Project's website.

Yes, there is a version of Tor Browser available specifically for Android. Installing Tor Browser for Android is all you need to run Tor on your Android device.

The Guardian Project provides the app Orbot which can be used to route other apps on your Android device over the Tor network, however only Tor Browser for Android is needed to browse the web with Tor.

GetTor

Per a obtenir enllaços per a baixar el navegador Tor, envieu un missatge a gettor@torproject.org amb un dels codis següents:

  • Linux
  • macOS (OS X)
  • Windows

GetTor via Twitter is currently under maintenance. Please use the email instead.

Envia un mail a gettor@torproject.org. Write your operating system (such as Windows, macOS, or Linux) in the body of the message and send. GetTor will respond with an email containing links from which you can download Tor Browser, the cryptographic signature (needed for verifying the download), the fingerprint of the key used to make the signature, and the package’s checksum. Es pot oferir una selecció de programari de "32 bits" o "de 64 bits": això depèn del model de l'ordinador que utilitzeu; consulteu la documentació sobre l'ordinador per obtenir-ne més informació.

If you can't download Tor Browser through our website, you can get a copy of Tor Browser delivered to you via GetTor. GetTor és un servei que respon automàticament als missatges amb enllaços a la versió més recent del Navegador Tor , allotjada en una varietat de llocs menys susceptibles de ser censurats, com Dropbox, Google Drive i GitHub. You can also download Tor Browser from https://tor.eff.org or from https://tor.ccc.de. For more geographically specific links visit Tor: Mirrors

Connexió al Tor

Si no podeu arribar al servei de onion que voleu, assegureu-vos que heu introduït correctament el format de 16 caràcters o, el més nou, l'adreça de onion de 56 caràcters: fins i tot un petit error deixarà que el Navegador Tor no pugui accedir al lloc. Si encara no podeu connectar-vos al servei de onion, torneu-ho a provar més tard. És possible que hi hagi un problema de connexió temporal o que els operadors del lloc hagin permès que es desconnectés sense previ avís.

També podeu assegurar-vos que podeu accedir a altres serveis de onion connectant-vos al servei de onion de DuckDuckGo.

Si teniu problemes per connectar-vos, seleccioneu l'opció «Copia el registre de Tor al porta-retalls». A continuació, enganxeu el registre de Tor en un fitxer de text o en un altre document. Heu de veure un d'aquests errors de registre comuns (busqueu les següents línies al vostre registre de Tor):

Common log error #1: Proxy connection failure
2017-10-29 09:23:40.800 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server
2017-10-29 09:24:08.900 [WARN] Proxy Client: unable to connect to xx..xxx..xxx.xx:xxxxx ("general SOCKS server failure")

Si veieu línies com aquestes al vostre registre de Tor, significa que no esteu connectant a un proxy SOCKS. Si es requereix un proxy SOCKS per a la configuració de la xarxa, assegureu-vos que heu introduït correctament els vostres detalls del proxy. Si no es requereix un proxy SOCKS, o no esteu segur, intenteu connectar-vos a la xarxa Tor sense un proxy SOCKS.

Common log error #2: Can’t reach guard relays
11/1/2017 21:11:43 PM.500 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 80%: Connecting to the Tor network
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.500 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 85%: Finishing handshake with first hop
11/1/2017 21:11:45 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.

Si veieu línies com aquestes en el vostre registre Tor, significa que Tor no s'ha pogut connectar al primer node del circuit Tor. Això podria significar que estàs en una xarxa censurada.

Intenteu connectar-vos amb ponts i això hauria de solucionar el problema.

Common log error #3: Failed to complete TLS handshake
13-11-17 19:52:24.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] Problem bootstrapping. Stuck at 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server. (DONE; DONE; count 10; recommendation warn; host [host] at xxx.xxx.xxx.xx:xxx) 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] 10 connections have failed: 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  9 connections died in state handshaking (TLS) with SSL state SSLv2/v3 read server hello A in HANDSHAKE 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  1 connections died in state connect()ing with SSL state (No SSL object)

Si veieu línies com aquesta al registre Tor, significa que Tor no ha pogut completar una encaixada de mans de TLS amb les autoritats del directori. Usar ponts probablement solucionarà això.

Common log error #4: Clock skew
19.11.2017 00:04:47.400 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.000 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.200 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.800 [WARN] Received NETINFO cell with skewed time (OR:xxx.xx.x.xx:xxxx): It seems that our clock is behind by 1 days, 0 hours, 1 minutes, or that theirs is ahead. Tor requires an accurate clock to work: please check your time, timezone, and date settings.

Si veieu línies com aquesta en el vostre registre Tor, significa que el vostre rellotge del sistema no és correcte. Assegureu-vos que el rellotge s'estableixi amb precisió, inclosa la zona horària correcta. Torneu a iniciar Tor.

Un dels problemes més comuns que causa errors de connexió al navegador Tor és un rellotge del sistema incorrecte. Assegureu-vos que el rellotge del sistema i el fus horari estiguin configurats amb precisió. If this doesn't fix the problem, see the Troubleshooting page on the Tor Browser manual.

Censura

Els repetidors pont són repetidors Tor que no figuren en el directori Tor públic.

Això vol dir que els ISP o els governs que intenten blocar l'accés a la xarxa Tor no poden simplement blocar tots els ponts. Els ponts són útils per als usuaris de Tor sota règims opressors, i per a persones que volen una capa addicional de seguretat perquè estan preocupats que algú reconegui que estan connectats a una adreça IP Tor de repetidor públic.

Un pont és només un repetidor normal amb una configuració lleugerament diferent. See How do I run a bridge for instructions.

Diversos països, inclosos Xina i Iran, han trobat maneres de detectar i blocar connexions als ponts de Tor. Obfsproxy bridges address this by adding another layer of obfuscation. La configuració d'un pont obfsproxy requereix un paquet de programari addicional i configuracions addicionals. See our page on pluggable transports for more info.

Si teniu problemes per connectar-vos, seleccioneu l'opció «Copia el registre de Tor al porta-retalls». A continuació, enganxeu el registre de Tor en un fitxer de text o en un altre document. Heu de veure un d'aquests errors de registre comuns (busqueu les següents línies al vostre registre de Tor):

Common log error #1: Proxy connection failure
2017-10-29 09:23:40.800 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server
2017-10-29 09:23:47.900 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server
2017-10-29 09:24:08.900 [WARN] Proxy Client: unable to connect to xx..xxx..xxx.xx:xxxxx ("general SOCKS server failure")

Si veieu línies com aquestes al vostre registre de Tor, significa que no esteu connectant a un proxy SOCKS. Si es requereix un proxy SOCKS per a la configuració de la xarxa, assegureu-vos que heu introduït correctament els vostres detalls del proxy. Si no es requereix un proxy SOCKS, o no esteu segur, intenteu connectar-vos a la xarxa Tor sense un proxy SOCKS.

Common log error #2: Can’t reach guard relays
11/1/2017 21:11:43 PM.500 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 80%: Connecting to the Tor network
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.
11/1/2017 21:11:44 PM.500 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 85%: Finishing handshake with first hop
11/1/2017 21:11:45 PM.300 [WARN] Failed to find node for hop 0 of our path. Discarding this circuit.

Si veieu línies com aquestes en el vostre registre Tor, significa que Tor no s'ha pogut connectar al primer node del circuit Tor. Això podria significar que estàs en una xarxa censurada.

Intenteu connectar-vos amb ponts i això hauria de solucionar el problema.

Common log error #3: Failed to complete TLS handshake
13-11-17 19:52:24.300 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] Problem bootstrapping. Stuck at 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server. (DONE; DONE; count 10; recommendation warn; host [host] at xxx.xxx.xxx.xx:xxx) 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN] 10 connections have failed: 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  9 connections died in state handshaking (TLS) with SSL state SSLv2/v3 read server hello A in HANDSHAKE 
13-11-17 19:53:49.300 [WARN]  1 connections died in state connect()ing with SSL state (No SSL object)

Si veieu línies com aquesta al registre Tor, significa que Tor no ha pogut completar una encaixada de mans de TLS amb les autoritats del directori. Usar ponts probablement solucionarà això.

Common log error #4: Clock skew
19.11.2017 00:04:47.400 [NOTICE] Opening Socks listener on 127.0.0.1:9150 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.000 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 5%: Connecting to directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.200 [NOTICE] Bootstrapped 10%: Finishing handshake with directory server 
19.11.2017 00:04:48.800 [WARN] Received NETINFO cell with skewed time (OR:xxx.xx.x.xx:xxxx): It seems that our clock is behind by 1 days, 0 hours, 1 minutes, or that theirs is ahead. Tor requires an accurate clock to work: please check your time, timezone, and date settings.

Si veieu línies com aquesta en el vostre registre Tor, significa que el vostre rellotge del sistema no és correcte. Assegureu-vos que el rellotge s'estableixi amb precisió, inclosa la zona horària correcta. Torneu a iniciar Tor.

Pot ser que estigueu en una xarxa censurada i, per tant, podeu provar utilitzar ponts. Alguns ponts es creen al navegador Tor, i podeu utilitzar aquests ponts triant "configurar" (seguint les indicacions) a la finestra Tor Launcher que apareix quan obriu el navegador Tor per primera vegada. If you need other bridges, you can get them at our Bridges website. For more information about bridges, see the Tor Browser manual.

If you can't download Tor Browser through our website, you can get a copy of Tor Browser delivered to you via GetTor. GetTor és un servei que respon automàticament als missatges amb enllaços a la versió més recent del Navegador Tor , allotjada en una varietat de llocs menys susceptibles de ser censurats, com Dropbox, Google Drive i GitHub. You can also download Tor Browser from https://tor.eff.org or from https://tor.ccc.de. For more geographically specific links visit Tor: Mirrors

De vegades, els llocs web bloquen els usuaris de Tor perquè no poden avaluar la diferència entre l'usuari Tor mitjà i el trànsit automatitzat. La millor manera que hem tingut per que els llocs desbloquin els usuaris de Tor és que els usuaris es posin en contacte directament amb els administradors del lloc. Alguna cosa així podria funcionar:

"Hola! He intentat accedir al vostre lloc xyz.com mentre feia servir el Navegador Tor i he descobert que no permet que els usuaris de Tor accedeixin al vostre lloc. Et convido a reconsiderar aquesta decisió; Tor és utilitzat per persones de tot el món per protegir la seva intimitat i lluitar contra la censura. Blocar els usuaris de Tor, probablement blocarà persones en països repressius que vulguin utilitzar una internet lliure, periodistes i investigadors que volen protegir-se de ser descoberts, denunciants, activistes i persones habituals que volen optar per un seguiment invasiu de tercers. Si us plau, prengui una posició forta a favor de la privadesa digital i la llibertat d'internet i permeti als usuaris de Tor accedir a xyz.com.Gràcies"

En el cas dels bancs i altres llocs web sensibles, també és habitual veure blocatge basat en la geografia (si un banc sap que en general accedeix als seus serveis d'un país i, de sobte, es connecta d'un repetidor de sortida a l'altre costat del món, el vostre compte pot estar blocat o suspès).

Si no podeu connectar-vos a un servei de onion, consulteu No puc accedir a X.onion!

El Navegador Tor pot, per descomptat, ajudar els usuaris a accedir al vostre lloc web des d'ubicacions on estigui blocat. Normalment, només cal baixar el Navegador Tor i utilitzar-lo per a navegar per la pàgina blocada per a poder accedir-hi. En llocs on hi ha una gran censura, tenim disponibles diverses opcions d’elusió de la censura, incloent-hi transports connectables.

Per a obtenir més informació, consulteu la secció de censura del manual d’usuari del Navegador Tor.

HTTPS

The short answer is: Yes, you can browse normal HTTPS Sites using Tor.

HTTPS Connections are used to secure communications over computer networks. You can read more about HTTPS here. Tor Browser has the HTTPS Everywhere plugin which automatically switches thousands of sites from unencrypted "HTTP" to more private "HTTPS".

Tor evita que els que espien sàpiguen quins llocs visiteu. Tanmateix, la informació enviada sense xifrar a Internet mitjançant HTTP simple encara pot ser interceptada pels operadors de repetidors de sortida o qualsevol persona que observi el trànsit entre el repetidor de sortida i el lloc web de destinació. Si el lloc que esteu visitant utilitza HTTPS, el trànsit que surt del relleu de sortida es xifrarà i no serà visible per als espies.

This visualization shows what information is visible to eavesdroppers with and without Tor Browser and HTTPS encryption.

La imatge següent mostra quina informació poden veure els tafaners amb el Navegador Tor i un xifratge HTTPS, i sense:

  • Feu clic al botó «Tor» per a saber quines dades poden veure els observadors quan utilitzeu el Tor. El botó es posarà de color verd per a indicar que el Tor està encès.
  • Feu clic al botó «HTTPS» per a saber quines dades poden veure els observadors quan utilitzeu HTTPS. El botó es posarà de color verd per a indicar que el Tor està encès.
  • Quan ambdós botons estan verds, es mostren les dades que poden veure els observadors quan utilitzeu ambdues eines.
  • Quan ambdós botons estan grisos, es mostren les dades que poden veure els observadors quan no utilitzeu cap de les dues eines.



DADES POTENCIALMENT VISIBLES
Lloc.com
El lloc web que s'està visitant.
usuari / contrasenya
Nom d'usuari i contrasenya utilitzats per a l'autenticació.
dades
Dades que s'estan transmetent.
ubicació
Ubicació en la xarxa de l'ordinador utilitzat per a visitar el lloc web (l'adreça IP pública).
Tor
Si s'està utilitzant el Tor o no.

Operadors

Tor guesses its IP address by asking the computer for its hostname, and then resolving that hostname. Often people have old entries in their /etc/hosts file that point to old IP addresses.

If that doesn't fix it, you should use the "Address" config option to specify the IP you want it to pick. If your computer is behind a NAT and it only has an internal IP address, see the following Support entry on dynamic IP addresses.

Also, if you have many addresses, you might also want to set "OutboundBindAddress" so external connections come from the IP you intend to present to the world.

If your relay is relatively new then give it time. Tor decides which relays it uses heuristically based on reports from Bandwidth Authorities. These authorities take measurements of your relay's capacity and, over time, directs more traffic there until it reaches an optimal load. The lifecycle of a new relay is explained in more depth in this blog post. If you've been running a relay for a while and still having issues then try asking on the tor-relays list.

If you allow exit connections, some services that people connect to from your relay will connect back to collect more information about you. For example, some IRC servers connect back to your identd port to record which user made the connection. (This doesn't really work for them, because Tor doesn't know this information, but they try anyway.) Also, users exiting from you might attract the attention of other users on the IRC server, website, etc. who want to know more about the host they're relaying through.

Another reason is that groups who scan for open proxies on the Internet have learned that sometimes Tor relays expose their socks port to the world. We recommend that you bind your socksport to local networks only.

In any case, you need to keep up to date with your security. See this article on security for Tor relays for more suggestions.

  • The exit relay is the most needed relay type but it also comes with the highest legal exposure and risk (and you should NOT run them from your home).
  • If you are looking to run a relay with minimal effort, fast guard relays are also very useful
  • Followed by bridges.

When an exit is misconfigured or malicious it's assigned the BadExit flag. This tells Tor to avoid exiting through that relay. In effect, relays with this flag become non-exits. If you got this flag then we either discovered a problem or suspicious activity when routing traffic through your exit and weren't able to contact you. Please reach out to the bad-relays team so we can sort out the issue.

When upgrading your Tor relay, or moving it on a different computer, the important part is to keep the same identity keys (stored in "keys/ed25519_master_id_secret_key" and "keys/secret_id_key" in your DataDirectory). Keeping backups of the identity keys so you can restore a relay in the future is the recommended way to ensure the reputation of the relay won't be wasted.

This means that if you're upgrading your Tor relay and you keep the same torrc and the same DataDirectory, then the upgrade should just work and your relay will keep using the same key. If you need to pick a new DataDirectory, be sure to copy your old keys/ed25519_master_id_secret_key and keys/secret_id_key over.

Note: As of Tor 0.2.7 we are using new generation identities for relays based on ed25519 elliptic curve cryptography. Eventually they will replace the old RSA identities, but that will happen in time, to ensure compatibility with older versions. Until then, each relay will have both an ed25519 identity (identity key file: keys/ed25519_master_id_secret_key) and a RSA identity (identity key file: keys/secret_id_key). You need to copy / backup both of them in order to restore your relay, change your DataDirectory or migrate the relay on a new computer.

We're looking for people with reasonably reliable Internet connections, that have at least 10 Mbit/s (Mbps) available bandwidth each way. If that's you, please consider running a Tor relay.

Even if you do not have at least 10 Mbit/s of available bandwidth you can still help the Tor network by running a Tor bridge with obfs4 support. In that case you should have at least 1 MBit/s of available bandwidth.

You're right, for the most part a byte into your Tor relay means a byte out, and vice versa. But there are a few exceptions:

If you open your DirPort, then Tor clients will ask you for a copy of the directory. The request they make (an HTTP GET) is quite small, and the response is sometimes quite large. This probably accounts for most of the difference between your "write" byte count and your "read" byte count.

Another minor exception shows up when you operate as an exit node, and you read a few bytes from an exit connection (for example, an instant messaging or ssh connection) and wrap it up into an entire 512 byte cell for transport through the Tor network.

If your Tor relay is using more memory than you'd like, here are some tips for reducing its footprint:

  • If you're on Linux, you may be encountering memory fragmentation bugs in glibc's malloc implementation. That is, when Tor releases memory back to the system, the pieces of memory are fragmented so they're hard to reuse. The Tor tarball ships with OpenBSD's malloc implementation, which doesn't have as many fragmentation bugs (but the tradeoff is higher CPU load). You can tell Tor to use this malloc implementation instead: ./configure --enable-openbsd-malloc.
  • If you're running a fast relay, meaning you have many TLS connections open, you are probably losing a lot of memory to OpenSSL's internal buffers (38KB+ per socket). We've patched OpenSSL to release unused buffer memory more aggressively. If you update to OpenSSL 1.0.0 or newer, Tor's build process will automatically recognize and use this feature.
  • If you still can't handle the memory load, consider reducing the amount of bandwidth your relay advertises. Advertising less bandwidth means you will attract fewer users, so your relay shouldn't grow as large. See the MaxAdvertisedBandwidth option in the man page.

All of this said, fast Tor relays do use a lot of ram. It is not unusual for a fast exit relay to use 500-1000 MB of memory.

We aim to make setting up a Tor relay easy and convenient:

  • It's fine if the relay goes offline sometimes. The directories notice this quickly and stop advertising the relay. Just try to make sure it's not too often, since connections using the relay when it disconnects will break.
  • Each Tor relay has an exit policy that specifies what sort of outbound connections are allowed or refused from that relay. If you are uncomfortable allowing people to exit from your relay, you can set it up to only allow connections to other Tor relays.
  • Your relay will passively estimate and advertise its recent bandwidth capacity, so high-bandwidth relays will attract more users than low-bandwidth ones. Therefore, having low-bandwidth relays is useful too.

If you're using Debian or Ubuntu especially, there are a number of benefits to installing Tor from the Tor Project's repository.

  • Your ulimit -n gets set to 32768 high enough for Tor to keep open all the connections it needs.
  • A user profile is created just for Tor, so Tor doesn't need to run as root.
  • An init script is included so that Tor runs at boot.
  • Tor runs with --verify-config, so that most problems with your config file get caught.
  • Tor can bind to low level ports, then drop privileges.

All outgoing connections must be allowed, so that each relay can communicate with every other relay.

In many jurisdictions, Tor relay operators are legally protected by the same common carrier regulations that prevent internet service providers from being held liable for third-party content that passes through their network. Exit relays that filter some traffic would likely forfeit those protections.

Tor promotes free network access without interference. Exit relays must not filter the traffic that passes through them to the internet. Exit relays found to be filtering traffic will get the BadExit flag once detected.

No. Si l'aplicació de la llei s'interessa pel trànsit des del teu repetidor de sortida, és possible que els agents s'apoderin de la vostra computadora. Per aquest motiu, és millor no executar el repetidor de sortida a casa o utilitzant la vostra connexió a Internet desde casa.

al contrari, considereu executar el repetidor de sortida en una instal·lació comercial que sigui compatible amb Tor. Tingueu una adreça IP independent per al vostre repetidor de sortida i no enruteu el vostre propi trànsit a través d'ell. Per descomptat, haureu d'evitar mantenir qualsevol informació personal o sensible a l'ordinador que allotgeu el vostre repetidor de sortida.

  • No utilitzeu els paquets en els dipòsits d'Ubuntu. No s'actualitzen de forma fiable. Si els utilitzes, pots perdre estabilitat important i correccions de seguretat.
  • Determineu la vostra versió d'Ubuntu executant el següent comandament:
     $ lsb_release -c
    
  • As root, add the following lines to /etc/apt/sources.list. Replace 'version' with the version you found in the previous step:
     $ deb https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org version main
     $ deb-src https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org version main
    
  • Afegiu la clau gpg usada per signar els paquets executant les ordres següents:
     $ curl https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org/A3C4F0F979CAA22CDBA8F512EE8CBC9E886DDD89.asc | sudo apt-key add -
    
  • Executeu les ordres següents per instal·lar tor i comproveu les seves signatures:
     $ sudo apt-get update
     $ sudo apt-get install tor deb.torproject.org-keyring
    

In simple words, it works like this:

  • There is a master ed25519 identity secret key file named "ed25519_master_id_secret_key". This is the most important one, so make sure you keep a backup in a secure place - the file is sensitive and should be protected. Tor could encrypt it for you if you generate it manually and enter a password when asked.
  • A medium term signing key named "ed25519_signing_secret_key" is generated for Tor to use. Also, a certificate is generated named "ed25519_signing_cert" which is signed by the master identity secret key and confirms that the medium term signing key is valid for a certain period of time. The default validity is 30 days, but this can be customized by setting "SigningKeyLifetime N days|weeks|months" in torrc.
  • There is also a master public key named "ed25519_master_id_public_key, which is the actual identity of the relay advertised in the network. This one is not sensitive and can be easily computed from "ed5519_master_id_secret_key".

Tor will only need access to the medium term signing key and certificate as long as they are valid, so the master identity secret key can be kept outside DataDirectory/keys, on a storage media or a different computer. You'll have to manually renew the medium term signing key and certificate before they expire otherwise the Tor process on the relay will exit upon expiration.

This feature is optional, you don't need to use it unless you want to. If you want your relay to run unattended for longer time without having to manually do the medium term signing key renewal on regular basis, best to leave the master identity secret key in DataDirectory/keys, just make a backup in case you'll need to reinstall it. If you want to use this feature, you can consult our more detailed guide on the topic.

Since it's now a guard, clients are using it less in other positions, but not many clients have rotated their existing guards out to use it as a guard yet. Read more details in this blog post or in Changing of the Guards: A Framework for Understanding and Improving Entry Guard Selection in Tor.

Great. If you want to run several relays to donate more to the network, we're happy with that. But please don't run more than a few dozen on the same network, since part of the goal of the Tor network is dispersal and diversity.

If you do decide to run more than one relay, please set the "MyFamily" config option in the torrc of each relay, listing all the relays (comma-separated) that are under your control:

MyFamily $fingerprint1,$fingerprint2,$fingerprint3

where each fingerprint is the 40 character identity fingerprint (without spaces).

That way, Tor clients will know to avoid using more than one of your relays in a single circuit. You should set MyFamily if you have administrative control of the computers or of their network, even if they're not all in the same geographic location.

The accounting options in the torrc file allow you to specify the maximum amount of bytes your relay uses for a time period.

    AccountingStart day week month [day] HH:MM

This specifies when the accounting should reset. For instance, to setup a total amount of bytes served for a week (that resets every Wednesday at 10:00am), you would use:

    AccountingStart week 3 10:00
    AccountingMax 500 GBytes

This specifies the maximum amount of data your relay will send during an accounting period, and the maximum amount of data your relay will receive during an account period. When the accounting period resets (from AccountingStart), then the counters for AccountingMax are reset to 0.

Example: Let's say you want to allow 50 GB of traffic every day in each direction and the accounting should reset at noon each day:

    AccountingStart day 12:00
    AccountingMax 50 GBytes

Note that your relay won't wake up exactly at the beginning of each accounting period. It will keep track of how quickly it used its quota in the last period, and choose a random point in the new interval to wake up. This way we avoid having hundreds of relays working at the beginning of each month but none still up by the end.

If you have only a small amount of bandwidth to donate compared to your connection speed, we recommend you use daily accounting, so you don't end up using your entire monthly quota in the first day. Just divide your monthly amount by 30. You might also consider rate limiting to spread your usefulness over more of the day: if you want to offer X GB in each direction, you could set your RelayBandwidthRate to 20*X KBytes. For example, if you have 50 GB to offer each way, you might set your RelayBandwidthRate to 1000 KBytes: this way your relay will always be useful for at least half of each day.

    AccountingStart day 0:00
    AccountingMax 50 GBytes
    RelayBandwidthRate 1000 KBytes
    RelayBandwidthBurst 5000 KBytes # allow higher bursts but maintain average

Tor has partial support for IPv6 and we encourage every relay operator to enable IPv6 functionality in their torrc configuration files when IPv6 connectivity is available. For the time being Tor will require IPv4 addresses on relays, you can not run a Tor relay on a host with IPv6 addresses only.

The parameters assigned in the AccountingMax and BandwidthRate apply to both client and relay functions of the Tor process. Thus you may find that you are unable to browse as soon as your Tor goes into hibernation, signaled by this entry in the log:

Bandwidth soft limit reached; commencing hibernation. No new
    connections will be accepted

The solution is to run two Tor processes - one relay and one client, each with its own config. One way to do this (if you are starting from a working relay setup) is as follows:

  • In the relay Tor torrc file, simply set the SocksPort to 0.
  • Create a new client torrc file from the torrc.sample and ensure it uses a different log file from the relay. One naming convention may be torrc.client and torrc.relay.
  • Modify the Tor client and relay startup scripts to include -f /path/to/correct/torrc.
  • In Linux/BSD/Mac OS X, changing the startup scripts to Tor.client and Tor.relay may make separation of configs easier.

Great. That's exactly why we implemented exit policies.

Each Tor relay has an exit policy that specifies what sort of outbound connections are allowed or refused from that relay. The exit policies are propagated to Tor clients via the directory, so clients will automatically avoid picking exit relays that would refuse to exit to their intended destination. This way each relay can decide the services, hosts, and networks it wants to allow connections to, based on abuse potential and its own situation. Read the Support entry on issues you might encounter if you use the default exit policy, and then read Mike Perry's tips for running an exit node with minimal harassment.

The default exit policy allows access to many popular services (e.g. web browsing), but restricts some due to abuse potential (e.g. mail) and some since the Tor network can't handle the load (e.g. default file-sharing ports). You can change your exit policy by editing your torrc file. If you want to avoid most if not all abuse potential, set it to "reject :". This setting means that your relay will be used for relaying traffic inside the Tor network, but not for connections to external websites or other services.

If you do allow any exit connections, make sure name resolution works (that is, your computer can resolve Internet addresses correctly). If there are any resources that your computer can't reach (for example, you are behind a restrictive firewall or content filter), please explicitly reject them in your exit policy otherwise Tor users will be impacted too.

Tor can handle relays with dynamic IP addresses just fine. Just leave the "Address" line in your torrc blank, and Tor will guess.

Yes, you do get better anonymity against some attacks.

The simplest example is an attacker who owns a small number of Tor relays. They will see a connection from you, but they won't be able to know whether the connection originated at your computer or was relayed from somebody else.

There are some cases where it doesn't seem to help: if an attacker can watch all of your incoming and outgoing traffic, then it's easy for them to learn which connections were relayed and which started at you. (In this case they still don't know your destinations unless they are watching them too, but you're no better off than if you were an ordinary client.)

There are also some downsides to running a Tor relay. First, while we only have a few hundred relays, the fact that you're running one might signal to an attacker that you place a high value on your anonymity. Second, there are some more esoteric attacks that are not as well-understood or well-tested that involve making use of the knowledge that you're running a relay -- for example, an attacker may be able to "observe" whether you're sending traffic even if they can't actually watch your network, by relaying traffic through your Tor relay and noticing changes in traffic timing.

It is an open research question whether the benefits outweigh the risks. A lot of that depends on the attacks you are most worried about. For most users, we think it's a smart move.

See portforward.com for directions on how to port forward with your NAT/router device.

If your relay is running on a internal net, you need to setup port forwarding. Forwarding TCP connections is system dependent but the firewalled-clients FAQ entry offers some examples on how to do this.

Also, here's an example of how you would do this on GNU/Linux if you're using iptables:

/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --destination-port 9001 -j ACCEPT

You may have to change "eth0" if you have a different external interface (the one connected to the Internet). Chances are you have only one (except the loopback) so it shouldn't be too hard to figure out.

There are two options you can add to your torrc file:

BandwidthRate is the maximum long-term bandwidth allowed (bytes per second). For example, you might want to choose "BandwidthRate 10 MBytes" for 10 megabytes per second (a fast connection), or "BandwidthRate 500 KBytes" for 500 kilobytes per second (a decent cable connection). The minimum BandwidthRate setting is 75 kilobytes per second.

BandwidthBurst is a pool of bytes used to fulfill requests during short periods of traffic above BandwidthRate but still keeps the average over a long period to BandwidthRate. A low Rate but a high Burst enforces a long-term average while still allowing more traffic during peak times if the average hasn't been reached lately. For example, if you choose "BandwidthBurst 500 KBytes" and also use that for your BandwidthRate, then you will never use more than 500 kilobytes per second; but if you choose a higher BandwidthBurst (like 5 MBytes), it will allow more bytes through until the pool is empty.

If you have an asymmetric connection (upload less than download) such as a cable modem, you should set BandwidthRate to less than your smaller bandwidth (Usually that's the upload bandwidth). Otherwise, you could drop many packets during periods of maximum bandwidth usage - you may need to experiment with which values make your connection comfortable. Then set BandwidthBurst to the same as BandwidthRate.

Linux-based Tor nodes have another option at their disposal: they can prioritize Tor traffic below other traffic on their machine, so that their own personal traffic is not impacted by Tor load. A script to do this can be found in the Tor source distribution's contrib directory.

Additionally, there are hibernation options where you can tell Tor to only serve a certain amount of bandwidth per time period (such as 100 GB per month). These are covered in the hibernation entry below.

Note that BandwidthRate and BandwidthBurst are in Bytes, not Bits.

Serveis Onion

When browsing an Onion Service, Tor Browser displays different onion icons in the address bar indicating the security of the current webpage.

Image of a green onion A green onion means:

  • The Onion Service is served over HTTP, or HTTPS with a self-signed certificate.

Image of a green onion with a lock A green onion with a lock means:

  • The Onion Service is served over HTTPS with a CA-Issued certificate.

Image of a grey onion with a red slash A grey onion with a red slash means:

  • The Onion Service is served over HTTPS with a self-signed or CA-Issued certificate.
  • The webpage contains subresources served over HTTP.

Si no podeu arribar al servei de onion que voleu, assegureu-vos que heu introduït correctament el format de 16 caràcters o, el més nou, l'adreça de onion de 56 caràcters: fins i tot un petit error deixarà que el Navegador Tor no pugui accedir al lloc. Si encara no podeu connectar-vos al servei de onion, torneu-ho a provar més tard. És possible que hi hagi un problema de connexió temporal o que els operadors del lloc hagin permès que es desconnectés sense previ avís.

També podeu assegurar-vos que podeu accedir a altres serveis de onion connectant-vos al servei de onion de DuckDuckGo.

Els serveis de onion permeten que la gent navegui, però també publiqui de manera anònima, inclosa la publicació de llocs web anònims.

Els serveis de onion també es basen en el xat i l'intercanvi d'arxius sense metadades, una interacció més segura entre els periodistes i les seves fonts, com ara SecureDrop o OnionShare, actualitzacions de programari més segures i formes més segures d'arribar a llocs web populars com Facebook.

These services use the special-use top level domain (TLD) .onion (instead of .com, .net, .org, etc..) and are only accessible through the Tor network.

Quan accedeix a un lloc web que utilitza un servei de onion , el Navegador Tor mostrarà a la barra d'URL una icona d'una petita ceba verda que mostra l'estat de la vostra connexió: segur i usant un servei de onion.

Onion icon

And if you're accessing a website with HTTPS and onion service, it will show an icon of a green onion and a padlock.

Green onion with a padlock

Els llocs web que només són accessibles per Tor són els anomenats "onions" i finalitzen en el TLD .onion. Per exemple, la onion DuckDuckGo és https://3g2upl4pq6kufc4m.onion. Podeu accedir a aquests llocs web utilitzant el navegador Tor. Les adreces han de ser compartides amb vostè per l'amfitrió del lloc web, ja que les onions no estan indexades en els motors de cerca de la manera típica que tenen els llocs web de vanilla.

Miscel·lània

Vidalia ja no es manté o és suportat. Una gran part de les funcions que Vidalia ofereix ara s'ha integrat al propi navegador Tor.

No, no oferim cap servei en línia. Podeu trobar una llista de tots els nostres projectes de programari a la nostra pàgina de projectes.

Tor no guarda registres que puguin identificar un usuari concret. Realitzem mesures segures sobre com funciona la xarxa, que podeu consultar a Tor Metrics.

Ho sentim molt, però ha estat infectat amb programari maliciós. El projecte Tor no ha creat aquest programari maliciós. Els autors del programari maliciós us demanen que baixeu el navegador Tor probablement per contactar-los de forma anònima amb el rescat que us demanen.

Si aquesta és la primera introducció al navegador Tor, entenem que podríeu pensar que som persones dolentes que habilitem persones encara pitjors.

Però consideri que el nostre programari s'utilitza diàriament per a diversos propòsits per activistes de drets humans, periodistes, supervivents de violència domèstica, denunciants, agents de policia i molts altres. Malauradament, la protecció que el nostre programari pot proporcionar a aquests grups de persones també pot ser maltractat pels criminals i els autors de malware. El projecte Tor no dona suport ni excusa l'ús del nostre programari per a fins maliciosos.

No recomanem utilitzar Tor amb BitTorrent. Per obtenir més informació, consulteu la nostra publicació de bloc sobre el tema.

Tor està finançat per diversos patrocinadors, incloent agències federals nord-americanes, fundacions privades i donants individuals. Check out a list of all our sponsors and a series of blog posts on our financial reports.

We feel that talking openly about our sponsors and funding model is the best way to maintain trust with our community. Sempre busquem més diversitat en les nostres fonts de finançament, especialment de fundacions i particulars.

Tor està dissenyat per defensar els drets humans i la privadesa evitant que ningú censuri coses, fins i tot nosaltres. Odiem que hi ha algunes persones que utilitzen Tor per fer coses terribles, però no podem fer res per desfer-se'n sense que també perjudiquem als activistes de drets humans, periodistes, superviventgs d'abusos i altres persones que utilitzen Tor per a coses bones. Si volguéssim blocar determinades persones d'utilitzar Tor, bàsicament hauríem afegit una porta del darrere al programari, que obriria als nostres usuaris vulnerabilitats, atacs de mals règims i altres adversaris.

Gràcies pel teu suport! Podeu trobar més informació sobre la donació a les nostres preguntes freqüents sobre els donants.

For sharing files over Tor, OnionShare is a good option. OnionShare is an open source tool for securely and anonymously sending and receiving files using Tor onion services. It works by starting a web server directly on your computer and making it accessible as an unguessable Tor web address that others can load in Tor Browser to download files from you, or upload files to you. It doesn't require setting up a separate server, using a third party file-sharing service, or even logging into an account.

Unlike services like email, Google Drive, DropBox, WeTransfer, or nearly any other way people typically send files to each other, when you use OnionShare you don't give any companies access to the files that you're sharing. So long as you share the unguessable web address in a secure way (like pasting it in an encrypted messaging app), no one but you and the person you're sharing with can access the files.

OnionShare is developed by Micah Lee.

Molts nodes de sortida es configuren per blocar certs tipus de trànsit per compartir fitxers, com ara BitTorrent. BitTorrent in particular is not anonymous over Tor.

Ara mateix, la longitud de la ruta està codificada a 3 punts més el nombre de nodes sensibles de la vostra ruta. És a dir, en casos normals és de 3, però per exemple si accediu a un servei de onion o una adreça ".exit", podria ser més.

No volem encoratjar a les persones a utilitzar trajectes més llargs que això, ja que augmenta la càrrega a la xarxa sense (en la mesura que podem dir) que proporcioni més seguretat. A més, l'ús de rutes de més de 3 pot fer malbé l'anonimat, primer, perquè facilita els atacs de denegació de seguretat i, en segon lloc, perquè podria actuar com a identificador si només un petit nombre d'usuaris tenen la mateixa longitud de camí.

No hi ha res que els desenvolupadors de Tor puguin fer per rastrejar els usuaris de Tor. Les mateixes proteccions que eviten que les persones dolentes frenin l'anonimat de Tor també ens impedeix rastrejar els usuaris.

The community team has developed this glossary of terms about and related to Tor.

A

add-on, extension, or plugin

Add-ons, extensions, and plugins are components that can be added to web browsers to give them new features. Tor Browser comes with two add-ons installed: NoScript and HTTPS Everywhere. You should not install any additional add-ons to Tor Browser because that can compromise some of its privacy features.

antivirus software

An antivirus software is used to prevent, detect and remove malicious software. Antivirus software can interfere with Tor running on your computer. You may need to consult the documentation for your antivirus software if you do not know how to allow Tor.

app

A web application (web app), is an application that the client runs in a web browser. App can also refer to software that you install on mobile operating systems.

Atlas

Atlas is a web application to learn about currently running Tor relays.

B

bandwidth authority

To determine a relay's throughput, special relays called bandwidth authorities take periodic measurements of the relays in the consensus.

bridge

Like ordinary Tor relays, bridges are run by volunteers; unlike ordinary relays, however, they are not listed publicly, so an adversary cannot identify them easily. Pluggable transports are a type of bridge that helps disguise the fact that you are using Tor.

bridge authority

A special-purpose relay that maintains the list of bridges.

browser fingerprinting

Fingerprinting is the process of collecting information about a device or service to make educated guesses about its identity or characteristics. Unique behavior or responses can be used to identify the device or service analyzed. Tor Browser prevents fingerprinting.

browsing history

A browser history is a record of requests made while using a web browser, and includes information like websites visited and when. Tor Browser deletes your browsing history after you close your session.

C

CAPTCHA

Captchas are a challenge-response test used in computing to determine whether the user is human or not. Tor users are often served captchas because Tor relays make so many requests that sometimes websites have a hard time determining whether or not those requests are coming from humans or bots.

checksum

Checksums are hash values of files. If you have downloaded the software without errors, the given checksum and the checksum of your downloaded file will be identical.

circuit

A path through the Tor network built by clients consisting of randomly selected nodes. The circuit begins with either a bridge or a guard. Most circuits consist of three nodes - a guard or bridge, a middle relay, and an exit. Most onion services use six hops in a circuit (with the exception of single onion services), and never an exit node. You can view your current Tor circuit by clicking on the onion button in Tor Browser.

client

In Tor, a client is a node in the Tor network, typically running on behalf of one user, that routes application connections over a series of relays.

Compass

Compass is a web application to learn about currently running Tor relays in bulk.

consensus

In Tor terms, a single document compiled and voted on by the directory authorities once per hour, ensuring that all clients have the same information about the relays that make up the Tor network.

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing. Tor Browser does not store cookies.

cross-site scripting (XSS)

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) allows an attacker to add malicious functionality or behavior to a website when they shouldn't have the ability to do so.

cryptographic signature

A cryptographic signature proves the authenticity of a message or file. It is created by the holder of the private portion of a public key cryptography key pair and can be verified by the corresponding public key. If you download software from torproject.org, you will find it as signature files (.asc). These are PGP signatures, so you can verify that the file you have downloaded is exactly the one that we intended you to get. For more information about how you can verify signatures, please see here.

D

dimoni

Un dimoni és un programa informàtic que s'executa com un procés en segon pla, en comptes de fer-ho sota el control directe d'un usuari.

directory authority

A special-purpose relay that maintains a list of currently-running relays and periodically publishes a consensus together with the other directory authorities.

E

xifratge

The process of taking a piece of data and scrambling it into a secret code that can only be read by the intended recipient. Tor uses three layers of encryption in the Tor circuit; each relay decrypts one layer before passing the request on to the next relay.

end-to-end encrypted

Transmitted data which is encrypted from origin to destination is called end-to-end encrypted.

exit

The last relay in the Tor circuit which sends traffic out onto the public Internet. The service you are connecting to (website, chat service, email provider, etc..) will see the IP address of the exit.

ExoneraTor

The ExoneraTor service maintains a database of relay IP addresses that have been part of the Tor network. It answers the question of whether there was a Tor relay running on a given IP address on a given date. This service is often useful when dealing with law enforcement.

F

Firefox

Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation. Tor Browser is built from a modified version of Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release). Firefox is available for Windows, macOS and Linux operating systems, with its mobile version (fennec) available for Android.

firewall

A firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic. This traffic filter is based on predetermined rules. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another outside network but it can also be used as a content filter in the sense of censorship. Sometimes people have trouble connecting to Tor because their firewall blocks Tor connections. You can reconfigure or disable your firewall and restart Tor to test this.

Flash Player

Flash Player is a browser plugin for Internet applications to watch audio and video content. You should never enable Flash to run in Tor Browser as it is unsafe. Many services that use Flash also offer an HTML5 alternative, which should work in the Tor Browser.

fte

FTE (format-transforming encryption) is a pluggable transport that disguises Tor traffic as ordinary web (HTTP) traffic.

G

GetTor

It is a service that automatically responds to messages (Email, XMPP, Twitter) with links to the latest version of Tor Browser, hosted at a variety of locations, such as Dropbox, Google Drive and GitHub.

GSoC

The Tor Project participates in the Google Summer of Code, which is a summer program for university students.

guard

The first relay in the Tor circuit, unless using a bridge. When using a bridge, the bridge takes the place of the guard.

H

hash

A cryptographic hash value is the result of a mathematical algorithm that maps data to a bit string of a fixed size. It's designed as one-way-function which means the value is easy to calculate in one direction but infeasible to invert. Hash values serve to verify the integrity of data.

hidden services

Former name for "onion services", sometimes still in use in Tor documentation or communication.

hop

In Tor terms, a "hop" refers to traffic moving between relays in a circuit.

HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a channel used to send files and data between devices on a network. Originally used to transfer only web pages, it is now relied upon to deliver many forms of data and communication.

HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is the encrypted version of the HTTP channel used to transfer files and data between devices on a network.

HTTPS Everywhere

HTTPS Everywhere is a Firefox, Chrome, and Opera extension that makes HTTPS the default on websites that have set up HTTPS but have not made it the default. HTTPS Everywhere is installed in Tor Browser.

I

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet. When using Tor Browser, your ISP cannot see what websites you're visiting.

IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical (or alpha-numeric in the case of IPv6) label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. The IP address is the location address of the device, similar to the addresses of physical locations. Tor Browser obscures your location by making it look like your traffic is coming from an IP address that is not your own.

J

JavaScript

JavaScript is a programming language that websites use to offer interactive elements such as video, animation, audio, and status timelines. Unfortunately, JavaScript can also enable attacks on the security of the web browser, which might lead to deanonymization. The NoScript extension in Tor Browser can be used to manage JavaScript on different websites.

K

L

little-t tor

"little-t tor" is one way of referring to tor the network daemon, as opposed to Tor Browser or Tor Project.

M

meek

These pluggable transports all make it look like you are browsing a major web site instead of using Tor. Meek-amazon makes it look like you are using Amazon Web Services; meek-azure makes it look like you are using a Microsoft web site; and meek-google makes it look like you are using Google search.

middle relay

The middle position in the Tor circuit. Non-exit relays can function as either a "middle" or a "guard" for different users.

N

New Identity

New Identity is a Tor Browser feature if you want to prevent your subsequent browser activity from being linkable to what you were doing before. Selecting it will close all your open tabs and windows, clear all private information such as cookies and browsing history, and use New Tor circuits for all connections. Tor Browser will warn you that all activity and downloads will be stopped, so take this into account before clicking “New Identity”. New Identity can also help if Tor Browser is having trouble connecting to a particular site, similarly to "New Tor Circuit for this Site".

New Tor Circuit for this Site

This option is useful if the exit you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Selecting it will cause the currently active tab or window to be reloaded over a new Tor circuit. Other open tabs and windows from the same website will use the new circuit as well once they are reloaded. This option does not clear any private information or unlink your activity, nor does it affect your current connections to other websites.

network censorship

Sometimes the direct access to the Tor network is blocked by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) or by a government. Tor Browser includes some circumvention tools for getting around these blocks, including bridges, pluggable transports, and GetTor.

NoScript

Tor Browser includes an add-on called NoScript, accessed through the “S” icon at the top-left of the window, which allows you to control the JavaScriptthat runs on individual web pages, or to block it entirely.

nyx

The anonymizing relay monitor (formerly arm, now nyx) is a terminal status monitor for Tor, intended for command-line usage. This is a tool for monitoring the core Tor process on a system, often useful for relay operators.

O

obfs3

Obfs3 is a pluggable transport that makes Tor traffic look random, so that it does not look like Tor or any other protocol. Obfs3 bridges will work in most places.

obfs4

Obfs4 is a pluggable transport that makes Tor traffic look random like obfs3, and also prevents censors from finding bridges by Internet scanning. Obfs4 bridges are less likely to be blocked than obfs3 bridges.

onion address

A standardized internet domain name used by onion services that end in .onion and is designed to be self-authenticating.

OONI

OONI stands for "Open Observatory of Network Interference", it is a global observation network for detecting censorship, surveillance and traffic manipulation on the internet.

Onion Browser

An iOS app which is open source, uses Tor routing, and is developed by someone who works closely with the Tor Project. Learn more about Onion Browser

onion services

Onion services (formerly known as “hidden services”) are services (like websites) that are only accessible through the Tor network. Onion services offer advantages over ordinary services on the non-private web, including:

Onionoo

Onionoo is a web-based protocol to learn about currently running Tor relays and bridges. Onionoo provides the data for other applications and websites(compass, atlas, etc..) which in turn present Tor network status information to humans.

onionsite

An onionsite is another name for an onion service, but refers exclusively to websites. These websites use the .onion Top Level Domain (TLD).

onionspace

The set of available onion services. For example, you can say "my site is in onionspace" instead of "my site is in the Dark Web."

Operating System (OS)

The main system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The most used desktop operating systems are Windows, macOS and Linux. Android and iOS are the dominant mobile operating systems.

Orbot

Orbot is a free app from The Guardian Project that empowers other apps on your device to use the internet more securely. Orbot uses Tor to encrypt your Internet traffic and hide it by bouncing through a series of computers around the world.

Orfox

Orfox is no longer maintained or supported.

To browse the web using Tor on Android, please use the supported Tor Browser for Android app developed by the Tor Project.

P

pluggable transports

Tools that Tor can use to disguise the traffic it sends out. This can be useful in situations where an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or other authority is actively blocking connections to the Tor network.

private key

The private portion of a public/private key pair. This is the key that must be kept private, and not disseminated to others.

proxy

A proxy is a middle man between a client (like a web browser) and a service (like a web server). Instead of connecting directly to the service, a client sends the message to the proxy. The proxy makes the request on behalf of the client, and passes the response back to the client. The service only communicates with and sees the proxy.

public key

The public portion of a public/private key pair. This is the key that can be disseminated to others.

public key cryptography

A public-key cryptography system uses pairs of mathematical keys. The public key can be disseminated widely while its belonging private key is known only by the owner of the key pair. Any person can encrypt a message using the public key of the receiver but only the receiver in possession of the private key is able to decrypt the message. Additionally, the private key can be used to create a signature to prove the identity of the creator of a message or other files. This signature can be verified by the public key.

Q

R

relay

A publicly-listed node in the Tor network that forwards traffic on behalf of clients, and that registers itself with the directory authorities.

S

Satori

It is an add-on for the Chrome or Chromium browsers that allows you to download several security and privacy programs, including Tor Browser, from different sources. You can Install Satori from the Chrome Web Store.

scramblesuit

Scramblesuit is similar to obfs4 but has a different set of bridges.

script

Elements used for offering dynamic/interactive content via websites.

self-authenticating address

The specialized address format of onion addresses is self-authenticating. The format automatically guarantees that the onion address is bound to the key used to protect connections to the onionsite. Ordinary internet domain names require site owners to trust and be approved by a Certificate Authority (CA) for this binding, and they are subject to hijack by the CA and typically by many other parties as well.

server

A device on a network that offers a service, such as file and web page storage, email or chat.

session

A session refers to a conversation between two devices communicating on a network. Using Tor Browser means that your session data will be wiped when you close the web browser.

single onion service

A single onion service is an onion service that can be configured for services that do not require anonymity, but want to offer it for clients connecting to their service. Single onion services use only three hops in the circuit rather than the typical six hops for onion services.

Stem

Stem is a Python (programming language) controller library for core Tor. If you want to control core Tor with python, this is for you.

Sybil attack

The Sybil attack in computer security is an attack wherein a reputation system is subverted by creating a large number of identities, and using them to gain a disproportionately large influence in the network.

T

Tails

Tails is a "live" operating system, that you can start on almost any computer from a DVD, USB stick, or SD card. It aims to preserve your privacy and anonymity. Learn more about Tails.

The Tor Project

The Tor Project can refer to either The Tor Project Inc, a 501(c)3 US nonprofit responsible for maintaining the Tor software, or the Tor Project community made up of thousands of volunteers from all over the world who help create Tor.

third-party tracking

Most websites use numerous third-party services, including advertising and analytics trackers, which collect data about your IP address, web browser, system and your browsing behavior itself, all of which can link your activity across different sites. Tor Browser prevents a lot of this activity from happening.

Tor / Tor network/ Core Tor

Tor is a program you can run on your computer that helps keep you safe on the Internet. It protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location. This set of volunteer relays is called the Tor network. Sometimes the software associated with this network is called Core Tor, and sometimes "little-t tor". The way most people use Tor is with Tor Browser which is a version of Firefox that fixes many privacy issues.

Tor Browser

Tor Browser uses the Tor network to protect your privacy and anonymity. Your internet activity, including the names and addresses of the websites you visit, will be hidden from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) and anyone watching your connection locally. The operators of the websites and services that you use, and anyone watching them, will see a connection coming from the Tor network instead of your real Internet (IP) address, and will not know who you are unless you explicitly identify yourself. In addition, Tor Browser is designed to prevent websites from “fingerprinting” or identifying you based on your browser configuration. By default, Tor Browser does not keep any browsing history. Cookies are only valid for a single session (until Tor Browser is exited or a New Identity is requested).

Tor Launcher

When you run Tor Browser for the first time, you see the Tor Launcher window. It offers you the option to connect directly to the Tor network, or to configure Tor Browser for your connection. In the second case, Tor Launcher will take you through a series of configuration options.

Tor log

"Tor log" is an automatically-generated list of Tor’s activity that can help diagnose problems. When something goes wrong with Tor, you may see an option with the error message to "copy Tor log to clipboard". If you don't see this option and you have Tor Browser open, you can navigate to the Torbutton (on the top left of the browser, to the left of the URL bar). Click the Tor button, then open Tor Network Settings. You should see an option at the bottom to copy the log to your clipboard, which you can then paste to a document to show whoever is helping you troubleshoot.

Tor Messenger

Tor Messenger was a cross-platform chat program that aimed to be secure by default and send all of its traffic over Tor. Tor Messenger is not in development anymore. It supported Jabber (XMPP), IRC, Google Talk, Facebook Chat, Twitter, Yahoo, and others; enabled Off-the-Record (OTR) Messaging automatically; and had an easy-to-use graphical user interface localized into multiple languages.

TorBirdy

This extension configures Thunderbird to make connections over Tor.

Torbutton

A button marked by a little gray onion to the right of the URL bar. Its menu offers you "New Identity", "Tor Network Settings..." and "Check for Tor Browser Update..." options.

torrc

The core Tor configuration file.

Torsocks

Torsocks allows you to use many applications in a safer way with Tor. It ensures that DNS requests are handled safely and explicitly rejects any traffic other than TCP from the application you're using.

Tor2Web

Tor2web is a project to let users access onion services without using the Tor Browser. NOTE: This is not as safe as connecting to the onion services via Tor Browser, and will remove all Tor-related protections the client would otherwise have.

TPI

TPI is an acronym for The Tor Project, Inc.

tpo

People on IRC often use tpo to abbreviate torproject.org when writing hostnames. For example, trac.tpo is an abbreviation for trac.torproject.org.

traffic

Traffic is the data sent and received by clients and servers.

U

V

W

Web Browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. Major web browsers include Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Safari.

website mirror

A website mirror is a one-to-one copy of a website that you can find under other web addresses. A current list of torproject.org mirrors is available at https://www.torproject.org/getinvolved/mirrors.html.en.

X

Y

Z

El Tor es recolza en el suport d'usuaris i voluntaris d'arreu del món per a ajudar-nos a millorar el nostre programari i recursos. Així doncs, apreciem molt els vostres comentaris (nosaltres i tots els usuaris del Tor).

Feedback template

When sending us feedback or reporting a bug, please include as many of these as possible:

  • OS you are using
  • Tor Browser version
  • Step by step of how you got to the issue, so we can reproduce it (e.g. I opened the browser, typed a url, clicked on (i) icon, then my browser crashed)
  • A screenshot of the problem
  • The log

How to Reach Us

There are several ways to reach us, so please use what works best for you.

Trac

You can file a ticket at https://trac.torproject.org. We track all Tor Browser 9 related issues with the tbb-9.0-issues keyword. Tickets related to our website should be added with the component "Webpages/Website."

Email

Send us an email to frontdesk@torproject.org

In the subject line of your email, please tell us what you're reporting. The more objective your subject line is (e.g. "Connection failure", "feedback on website", "feedback on Tor Browser, "I need a bridge"), the easier it will be for us to understand and follow up. Sometimes when we receive emails without subject lines, they're marked as spam and we don't see them.

For the fastest response, please write in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese if you can. If none of these languages works for you, please write on any language you feel comfortable with, but keep in mind it will take us a bit longer to answer as we will need help with translation to understand it.

Blog post comments

You can always leave comments on the blog post related to the issue or feedback you want to report. If there is not a blog post related to your issue, please contact us another way.

IRC

You can find us in the #tor channel on OFTC to give us feedback or report bugs/issues. We may not respond right away, but we do check the backlog and will get back to you when we can.

Learn how to connect to OFTC servers.

Email Lists

For reporting issues or feedback using email lists, we recommend that you do on the one that is related to what you would like to report.

For feedback or issues related to Tor Browser, Tor network or other projects developed by Tor: tor-talk

For feedback or issues related to our websites: ux

For feedback or issues related to running a Tor relay: tor-relays

For feedback on content related to Tor Browser Manual or Support website: tor-community-team

Report a security issue

If you've found a security issue in one of our projects or in our infrastructure, please email tor-security@lists.torproject.org. If you've found a security bug in Tor or Tor Browser, feel free to submit it for our bug bounty program. Si voleu xifrar el vostre correu, podeu obtenir la clau GPG pública de la llista si contacteu amb tor-security-sendkey@lists.torproject.org o des de pool.sks-keyservers.net. Aquí teniu l'empremta:

  gpg --fingerprint tor-security@lists.torproject.org
  pub 4096R/1A7BF184 2017-03-13
  Key fingerprint = 8B90 4624 C5A2 8654 E453 9BC2 E135 A8B4 1A7B F184
  uid tor-security@lists.torproject.org
  uid tor-security@lists.torproject.org
  uid tor-security@lists.torproject.org
  sub 4096R/C00942E4 2017-03-13

Contacte

The #tor-project channel is where Tor people discuss and coordinate daily Tor work. It has fewer members than #tor and is more focused on the work at hand. You are also welcome to join this channel. To access #tor-project, your nickname (nick) must be registered and verified.

Here's how to reach #tor-project and other registered channels.

Register your nickname

  1. Log onto #tor. See How can I chat with Tor Project teams?

  2. Then, click on the word "Status" at the top left of the screen.

  3. In the window at the bottom of the page, type: /msg nickserv REGISTER yournewpassowrd youremailaddress

  4. Hit enter.

If all goes well, you will receive a message that you are registered.

The system may register you as your nick_ instead of your nick.

If so, just go with it but remember you are user_ and not user.

Every time you log on to IRC, to identify your registered nick, type:

/nick yournick

/msg nickserv IDENTIFY YourPassWord

How to verify your nickname

Then, to complete the registration and ultimately gain access to the #tor-project channel, your nickname must be verified.

  1. To verify your nick, open a new browser window and go to https://services.oftc.net/login.

  2. Log in with your IRC nickname and password.

  3. Look for the word verify and log in there. It may appear that nothing has happened. Look at the top of the page, and there will be a column called Account.

  4. Click on Account.

  5. Click on the small sentence at the bottom of the square that says: Verify account.

  6. Fill out the CAPTCHA that pops up, and click ok.

  7. A tiny message will appear: "Your NickServ account has been verified."

  8. Go back to the IRC webpage where you are logged in and type:

    /msg nickserv checkverify

  9. Click ENTER.

  10. If all is well, you will receive a message that says:

*!NickServ*checkverify

Usermodechange: +R

!NickServ- Successfully set +R on your nick.
`

Your nick is verified!

Now, to join #tor-project, you can just type:

/join #tor-project and hit enter.

You will be allowed into the channel. If so, Congratulations!

However, if you get stuck, you can ask for help in the #tor channel.

You can toggle back and forth between channels by clicking on the different channel names at the top left of the IRC window.

Here is how you can get onto IRC and start to chat with Tor contributors in real time:

  1. Enter in OFTC webchat.

  2. Fill in the blanks:

    NICKNAME: Anything you want, but choose the same nickname (nick) every time you use IRC to talk to people on Tor. If your nick is already being used, you will get a message from the system and you should choose another nick.

    CHANNEL: #tor

  3. Click Enter

Congratulations! You're on IRC.

After a few seconds, you will automatically enter #tor, which is a chatroom with Tor developers, relay operators and other community members. There are some random people in #tor as well.

You can ask questions in the empty bar at the bottom of the screen. Please, don't ask to ask, just ask your question.

People may be able to answer right away, or there may be a bit of a delay (some people are listed on the channel but are away from their keyboards and record channel activities to read later).

If you want to chat with someone specific, start your comment with their nick and they will typically receive a notification that someone is trying to contact them.

OFTC often doesn't allow people to use their webchat over Tor. For this reason, and because many people end up preferring it anyway, you should also consider using an IRC client.

Repositori Debian

Yes, deb.torproject.org is also served through via an Onion Service: http://sdscoq7snqtznauu.onion/

To use Apt over Tor, the apt transport needs to be installed:

   # apt install apt-transport-tor

Then replace the address in the lines added before with, for example:

   # For the stable version.
   deb tor://sdscoq7snqtznauu.onion/torproject.org <DISTRIBUTION> main

   # For the unstable version.
   deb tor://sdscoq7snqtznauu.onion/torproject.org tor-nightly-master-<DISTRIBUTION> main

Replace <DISTRIBUTION> with your Operating System codename. Run lsb_release -c or cat /etc/debian_version to discover.

Now refresh your sources and try if it's still possible to install tor:

   # apt update
   # apt install tor

No. Do not use the packages in Ubuntu's universe. In the past they have not reliably been updated. That means you could be missing stability and security fixes. Please, use Tor Debian repository.

The Tor Project maintains its own Debian package repository. Since Debian provides the LTS version of Tor that this might not always give you the latest stable Tor version, it's recommended to install tor from our repository.

Here's how you can enable Tor Package Repository in Debian based distributions:

1. Install apt-transport-https and curl

To enable all package managers using the libapt-pkg library to access metadata and packages available in sources accessible over https (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure).

   # apt install apt-transport-https curl

2. Add the following entries to /etc/apt/sources.list or a new file in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/

   deb https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org <DISTRIBUTION> main
   deb-src https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org <DISTRIBUTION> main

If you want to try experimental packages:

   deb https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org tor-experimental-0.3.4.x-<DISTRIBUTION> main
   deb-src https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org tor-experimental-0.3.4.x-<DISTRIBUTION> main

Or nightly builds:

   deb https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org tor-nightly-master-<DISTRIBUTION> main
   deb-src https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org tor-nightly-master-<DISTRIBUTION> main

Replace <DISTRIBUTION> with your Operating System codename. Run lsb_release -c or cat /etc/debian_version to discover.

3. Then add the gpg key used to sign the packages by running the following commands at your command prompt

   # curl https://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org/A3C4F0F979CAA22CDBA8F512EE8CBC9E886DDD89.asc | gpg --import
   # gpg --export A3C4F0F979CAA22CDBA8F512EE8CBC9E886DDD89 | apt-key add -

4. Install tor and tor debian keyring

We provide a Debian package to help you keep our signing key current. It is recommended you use it. Install it with the following commands:

   # apt update
   # apt install tor deb.torproject.org-keyring